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Country analysis

Myanmar


Post-February 2021 coup conflict and longstanding localised conflicts between armed forces (the Tatmadaw) and ethnic armed organisations, widespread and systemic violence, political and economic instability, and natural hazards such as cyclones and floods drive the humanitarian situation in Myanmar.

Its ethnically diverse population was under military rule from 1962–2011; the military shared power with the Government through the 2008 constitution until 1 February 2021, when the Tatmadaw staged a military coup, declaring fraud in the November 2020 multiparty general elections that the National League for Democracy won.

The coup has since internally displaced nearly 2.3 million. In 2024, 18.6 million people are projected to need humanitarian assistance. The country has nearly 2.6 million IDPs, and more than a million have been displaced to Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, and Thailand.

Protection is a key concern, as armed conflict and international humanitarian law violations by the Tatmadaw and armed groups continue to affect civilians. Access to basic services is limited. Conflict and a lack of economic opportunities threaten livelihoods, particularly for the stateless Rohingya in Rakhine.

The country is facing soaring poverty and high food insecurity levels, with an estimated 12.9 million people facing moderate to severe food insecurity in 2024.

(AOAV 01/02/2022, CFR accessed 04/02/2024, UNHCR 23/01/2024, UNHCR accessed 04/02/2024, OCHA 18/12/2023)

Post-February 2021 coup conflict and longstanding localised conflicts between armed forces (the Tatmadaw) and ethnic armed organisations, widespread and systemic violence, political and economic instability, and natural hazards such as cyclones and floods drive the humanitarian situation in Myanmar.

Its ethnically diverse population was under military rule from 1962–2011; the military shared power with the Government through the 2008 constitution until 1 February 2021, when the Tatmadaw staged a military coup, declaring fraud in the November 2020 multiparty general elections that the National League for Democracy won.

The coup has since internally displaced nearly 2.3 million. In 2024, 18.6 million people are projected to need humanitarian assistance. The country has nearly 2.6 million IDPs, and more than a million have been displaced to Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, and Thailand.

Protection is a key concern, as armed conflict and international humanitarian law violations by the Tatmadaw and armed groups continue to affect civilians. Access to basic services is limited. Conflict and a lack of economic opportunities threaten livelihoods, particularly for the stateless Rohingya in Rakhine.

The country is facing soaring poverty and high food insecurity levels, with an estimated 12.9 million people facing moderate to severe food insecurity in 2024.

(AOAV 01/02/2022, CFR accessed 04/02/2024, UNHCR 23/01/2024, UNHCR accessed 04/02/2024, OCHA 18/12/2023)

Latest updates on country situation

31 January 2024

An estimated 18.6 million people in Myanmar need humanitarian assistance in 2024. Intense armed conflict, widespread and systematic violence, political and economic instability, displacement prompted by conflict and natural hazards, and widespread protection risks mainly drive the humanitarian crisis in the country. Myanmar has been facing this deepening crisis since the military coup in February 2021, which resulted in conflict between the military junta forces, along with pro-military armed groups, and anti-military armed groups comprising ethnic armed organisations and anti-coup resistance groups. The armed conflict has significantly escalated since late October 2023. Since the coup, nearly 2.3 million people have been displaced within the country, taking the number of IDPs to nearly 2.6 million as at 22 January 2024. Almost 13 million people need food security assistance, and around 12 million need assistance in accessing health assistance and protection. (OCHA 18/12/2023, UNHCR 26/01/2024, UNHCR 23/01/2024)

26 January 2024

Since November 2023, more than 8,500 people have arrived in Mizoram and Manipur states. They are living in overcrowded conditions and are in immediate need of food, water, shelter, winterisation support, and relief items. Local humanitarian response is present but resources are stretched. (UNHCR 26/01/2024, UNHCR 23/01/2024, DW 17/01/2024)

26 January 2024

Fighting between the Myanmar military forces and opposition armed groups in Hsi Hseng township, southern Shan state, since 20 January 2024 has displaced about 100,000 people. Many have fled to jungles, monasteries, and relatives’ homes. Based on past incidents, the displaced likely require urgent food, shelter, health, WASH, and winterisation support. (ECHO 26/01/2024, The Irrawaddy 27/01/2024)

21 January 2024

According to media reports, the escalation of armed conflict between the Arakan Army and the Myanmar military since November 2023 in Paletwa township, Chin state, had displaced 50,000 people as at 19 January 2024. Some of the displaced have fled to Rakhine state and Yangon region in Myanmar and India’s Mizoram state. The displaced urgently need food, shelter, medicine, and winterisation support. (RFA 19/01/2024, CASS 18/01/2024)

03 January 2024

18.6 million people in Myanmar need humanitarian assistance. Nearly 13 million of them (23% of the total population) are estimated to be moderately or severely food-insecure. The most profound food consumption gaps are found among IDPs, Rohingya people, and female-headed households. The proportion of IDPs who are moderately or severely food-insecure is approximately double that of the host communities. Conflict and displacement are affecting food security, and movement restrictions have reduced market access. Along with natural hazards, these factors have led to rising food prices. Increased poverty, asset depletion, rising fuel prices, as well as reduced food production, accessibility, and affordability are driving food insecurity and pushing many to reduce food quantity and quality as a coping strategy, especially in Chin and Kayah states. Food insecurity has significantly affected people's mental health and psychosocial well-being. (OCHA 18/12/2023, The Guardian 24/11/2023, The Irrawaddy 20/11/2023)

15 December 2023

As at 15 December 2023, the escalation of armed conflict in Myanmar since late October had internally displaced around 660,000 people, bringing the total in the country to around 2.6 million. Movement restrictions, fuel shortages, soaring fuel and commodity prices, and banking restrictions are hindering the humanitarian response. (OCHA 15/12/2023, UNHCR 12/12/2023)

23 November 2023

As at 22 November, the escalation of armed conflict in Myanmar between the military junta forces and anti-military groups since late October has internally displaced more than 330,000 people, bringing the total number of IDPs in the country to over two million. Some of the newly displaced are sheltering in forested areas and paddy fields with very limited humanitarian access. The most affected states and regions are Chin, Mandalay, Rakhine, Sagaing, and northern Shan. Active fighting has blocked or severely restricted key transportation routes, including road and waterway infrastructure, and closed some airports, hindering humanitarian access, people’s movement to safer locations, and the supply of essential goods. Both the newly displaced and host communities need immediate humanitarian assistance, such as food, potable water, safe shelter, emergency healthcare, water purification tablets, medical supplies, shelter materials, dignity kits, protection support, and cash assistance. (OCHA 23/11/2023, IISS 20/11/2023, RFA 20/11/2023)

current crises
in Myanmar


These crises have been identified through the INFORM Severity Index, a tool for measuring and comparing the severity of humanitarian crises globally.

Read more about the Index

MMR004 - Post-coup conflict

Last updated 26/01/2024


Drivers

Violence
Socio-political
Conflict

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

4.4 Very High

Access constraints

5.0

MMR001 - Country level

Last updated 26/01/2024


Drivers

Socio-political
Conflict
Violence

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

4.6 Very High

Access constraints

5.0

MMR002 - Rakhine conflict

Last updated 26/01/2024


Drivers

Conflict

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

3.8 High

Access constraints

5.0

MMR003 - Kachin and Shan conflict

Last updated 26/01/2024


Drivers

Conflict

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

3.7 High

Access constraints

4.0

REG011 - Rohingya Regional Crisis

Last updated 27/01/2024


Drivers


Crisis level

Regional

Severity level

4 High

Access constraints

5.0

Analysis products
on Myanmar

Myanmar: three years post-coup

20 February 2024

Myanmar: three years post-coup

DOCUMENT / PDF / 5 MB

The report reviews the evolution of the humanitarian situation across Myanmar in 2023 and early 2024, focusing on key contextual developments and humanitarian trends. It also highlights the response capacity and constraints and provides an outlook for humanitarian developments throughout 2024.

Myanmar: humanitarian impacts of recent clashes

23 November 2023

Myanmar: humanitarian impacts of recent clashes

DOCUMENT / PDF / 8 MB

Since the end of October 2023, fighting between ethnic armed organisations (EAOs) and the Myanmar Armed Forces (MAF) has escalated in several states across the country. On 26 October, a coalition of EAOs known as the Three Brotherhood Alliance, attacked security force bases in northern Shan state. 

Conflict and violence
Myanmar: analysis ecosystem

10 October 2023

Myanmar: analysis ecosystem

DOCUMENT / PDF / 1 MB

This report analyses the current analysis ecosystem in the humanitarian context of Myanmar. It highlights the humanitarian sector’s analysis needs and gaps resulting from the reduced operational space and consequent constraints on data collection and data and information sharing. 

Audio
India: Myanmar refugees

28 July 2023

India: Myanmar refugees

DOCUMENT / PDF / 859 KB

The political turmoil and violence in Myanmar following the February 2021 military coup have led to a significant influx of refugees from Myanmar seeking safety and shelter in northeastern India. The displaced people from Myanmar include ‘stateless’ Rohingya refugees and Myanmar nationals, mainly from Chin and Sagaing states. 

Mixed migration
Impact of Cyclone Mocha

23 May 2023

Impact of Cyclone Mocha

DOCUMENT / PDF / 931 KB

On 14 May 2023, the extremely severe cyclonic storm Mocha made landfall between Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh and Kyaukpyu township in Myanmar. The cyclone caused significant damage to critical infrastructure, houses, and shelters in western and northern Myanmar, and in Bangladesh’s southeastern Chattogram division. 

Natural hazards

Attached resources

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