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December 2023

Humanitarian access

A snapshot of the most challenging contexts

Between June and November 2023, crisis-affected populations in 41 countries were experiencing high to extreme access constraints, making it challenging for them to meet their basic needs.


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Disclaimer: some countries with active humanitarian crises might score 0 in ACAPS' Humanitarian Access Index in two instances: 1) the crisis emerged after the July 2023 issue of the index - in that case, the score is automatically 0, in the absence of data/historical data; 2) the actual score is 0 because no humanitarian access constraints were reported.



Bukina Faso & Ethiopia deteriorated the most





These two countries saw a score increase to 5, recording extreme access constraints from June–December 2023.
The deterioration of the humanitarian access situation was a consequence of conflict developments and an overall deterioration of the humanitarian situation in both countries.  


Palestine continue to experience extreme access constraints due to the destruction of basic infrastructure, forced displacement and increased movement restrictions, amid hostilities between Israel and Hamas since October 2023.

Over the past six months, the humanitarian access situation has also deteriorated in Azerbaijan, Honduras, Mexico, and Mozambique.


Our methodology groups 9 indicators under 3 pillars: each indicator is given a score from 0–3 and X when there is an information gap. The model then combines the indicators in pillars, where they get a final score on a scale of 0–5. 


Access of people in need to humanitarian aid



indicators under PILLAR 1

1: Denial of existence of humanitarian needs or entitlements to assistance

2: Restriction and obstruction of access to services and assistance 




The humanitarian access situation in Pakistan has deteriorated under Pillar 1 mainly because of the constraints faced by Afghan refugees in accessing services. The forced displacement and detention of Afghan refugees have intensified during the reporting period, challenging their entitlement to assistance and pushing some to return to areas of Afghanistan where assistance is even more limited.



The humanitarian access situation in Somalia has improved under Pillar 1 mainly because people in need were not denied assistance in the reported period. However, landowners have evicted thousands of displaced people heavily dependent on humanitarian aid from displacement sites located on privately owned land.



The humanitarian access situation in Mali has deteriorated under Pillar 1, particularly because of the denial of entitlement to assistance resulting from movement restrictions imposed by non-state armed groups. The encirclement of villages coupled with the presence of explosive devices considerably limit aid access for people living in conflict-affected areas.

More than 100,000 ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh crossed into Armenia following Azerbaijan's military campaign on the region on 19 September 2023. The displaced population faced shelter needs and struggled to receive accommodations and other humanitarian services in Armenia.

Pillar 2

Access of humanitarian responders to people in need



indicators under PILLAR 2

3: Impediments to enter the country

4: Restriction of movement within the country

5: Interference into implementation of humanitarian activities 

6: Violence against humanitarian personnel, facilities, and assets 





The humanitarian access situation in the DRC deteriorated under Pillar 2 because of administrative constraints affecting international staff and the import of relief items. Adding to this is the interference of authorities and non-state armed groups in the implementation of humanitarian activities, causing recurring delays in humanitarian aid delivery. 



The humanitarian access situation in Yemen has improved slightly under Pillar 2 owing to the absence of reported constraints hindering the registration of humanitarian organisations over the reporting period. The improvement is also linked to the absence of reported incidents of aid diversion or confiscation during the same period. 



The humanitarian access situation in Cameroon has deteriorated under pillar 2 because of movement restrictions imposed by non-state armed groups through lockdowns, mainly in Northwest and Southwest regions. The deterioration is also linked to the increase in incidents affecting humanitarian staff. Incidents of aid worker kidnapping have increased significantly over the current reporting period compared to the previous one.

In Sudan, increased delays in the registration of international humanitarian organisations and in the delivery of visas for international staff impeded humanitarian operations.

Pillar 3

Physical, environmental and security constraints



Indicators UNDER PILLAR 3  

7: Insecurity or hostilities affecting humanitarian assistance 

8: Presence of landmines, improvised explosive devices, explosive remnants of war and unexploded ordnance

9: Physical constraints in the environment




The humanitarian access situation in Lebanon has deteriorated under Pillar 3, particularly because of growing insecurity in the south of the country resulting from clashes in the Ein El-Hilweh refugee camp, causing a temporary suspension of humanitarian activities inside the camp. More recently, clashes between Israeli forces and Hezbollah in southern Lebanon have damaged public services, such as hospitals and schools, and disrupted humanitarian activities. 



The humanitarian access situation in Mexico City has deteriorated under Pillar 3 because of insecurity and climate hazards. Criminal violence hindered the free movement of local populations and caused additional forced displacement. Hurricane Otis also caused extensive damage to public services, including electricity, internet, education, and water services. Landslides and road damage from the hurricane challenge access to affected people. 



The humanitarian access situation has deteriorated in India under Pillar 3 mainly because of physical constraints in Kashmir region. The movement of people and goods to and from the region were temporarily limited by the closure of the main road connecting Kashmir with the rest of the country as a result of weather-related challenges, such as landslides and snowfall between July–November.   

In Colombia, insecurity linked to the presence of armed groups prevented people in need from moving freely to access services or aid.

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Analysis products
on Humanitarian access

28 February 2024

Humanitarian access situation in Myanmar

Extreme access constraints persist in Myanmar. Armed conflict and security measures, including checkpoints, roadblocks, and curfews, affect humanitarian access. Violence and insecurity resulting from the conflict have internally displaced many towards remote jungles and forests, where access to aid and services is very limited.


Around 600,000 Rohingya in Rakhine state continue to be denied citizenship and have limited freedom of movement and access to livelihood opportunities, education, and healthcare. Burdensome bureaucratic processes, travel authorisation denials and delays, visa delays for humanitarians, and banking restrictions hinder the operations of humanitarian organisations in the country.


For more details, please visit our thematic page on humanitarian access.

Humanitarian access
Ukraine: quarterly humanitarian access update

06 February 2024

Ukraine: quarterly humanitarian access update


This report aims to compare access challenges across different Ukraine oblasts to inform humanitarian responders and support their decision-making. It is part of the ACAPS quarterly analysis of access constraints, with the last report published on 8 November 2023.

Humanitarian access
Protection risks in eastern and western Libya

15 December 2023

Protection risks in eastern and western Libya


This report provides an analysis of available information on protection risks prior to Storm Daniel and identifies any new or changed protection threats following the storm.


Afghanistan: update on Taliban decrees and directives affecting the humanitarian response

01 December 2023

Afghanistan: update on Taliban decrees and directives affecting the humanitarian response


This report provides an update on the Interim Taliban Authority (ITA) decrees and directives (edicts) relevant to the Afghanistan humanitarian response. The analysis covers the period between the publication of ACAPS’ baseline report in April 2023 and October 2023. 

Humanitarian access
Palestine/Israel: Spotlight on the situation of Gazan workers

10 November 2023

Palestine/Israel: Spotlight on the situation of Gazan workers


As at 7 October, an estimated 18,000 residents of the Gaza Strip held work permits issued by the Israeli authorities. On 10 October, Israel’s Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories revoked all work permits. This announcement was followed by mass arrests and detentions of Gazans working in Israel by Israeli authorities.

Conflict and violence