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Country analysis

Ukraine


Armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine started in 2014 after Russia invaded Crimea in southern Ukraine and, later that year, the eastern Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts. The conflict escalated in February 2022 when Russia launched a full-scale invasion from Russian and Belarusian territory into northern, eastern, and southern Ukraine, resulting in mass displacement within Ukraine and abroad, mostly to the EU.

More than six million refugees from Ukraine have travelled to neighbouring countries or farther. As at the end of 2022, hostilities and insecurity had displaced close to six million people within Ukraine. As at May 2023, over five million people remained internally displaced.

The number of people in need of humanitarian assistance increased from 2.9 million before 24 February 2022 to 17.6 million in 2023. More than 4.7 million displaced people have moved back temporarily or permanently, and they have high needs across all sectors given the extensive destruction of critical infrastructure. Over seven million people have fallen into poverty because of the negative socioeconomic impact of the conflict.

(Atlantic Council 14/02/2023, OCHA 28/12/2022, UNHCR accessed 03/08/2023, IOM accessed 03/08/2023, WB 23/03/2023

Armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine started in 2014 after Russia invaded Crimea in southern Ukraine and, later that year, the eastern Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts. The conflict escalated in February 2022 when Russia launched a full-scale invasion from Russian and Belarusian territory into northern, eastern, and southern Ukraine, resulting in mass displacement within Ukraine and abroad, mostly to the EU.

More than six million refugees from Ukraine have travelled to neighbouring countries or farther. As at the end of 2022, hostilities and insecurity had displaced close to six million people within Ukraine. As at May 2023, over five million people remained internally displaced.

The number of people in need of humanitarian assistance increased from 2.9 million before 24 February 2022 to 17.6 million in 2023. More than 4.7 million displaced people have moved back temporarily or permanently, and they have high needs across all sectors given the extensive destruction of critical infrastructure. Over seven million people have fallen into poverty because of the negative socioeconomic impact of the conflict.

(Atlantic Council 14/02/2023, OCHA 28/12/2022, UNHCR accessed 03/08/2023, IOM accessed 03/08/2023, WB 23/03/2023

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Latest updates on country situation

02 January 2024

Over 40 people were killed and more than 220 injured in massive Russian airstrikes across Ukraine between 29 December 2023 and 2 January 2024. Among the targeted locations were the cities of Dnipro, Kharkiv, Kyiv, Lviv, Odesa, and Zaporizhzhia, as well as villages and towns in Chernihivska, Dnipropetrovska, Donetska, Kharkivska, Khersonska, Sumska, and Zaporizka oblasts. The most affected areas were cities of Kharkiv and Kyiv and frontline communities. Missiles, drones, and associated debris caused damage and destruction to homes, schools, warehouses, and hospitals. The attacks caused further disruption to electricity, water supply, and public transport. Air raid sirens and damage to homes forced hundreds of thousands of people to take shelter or evacuate. In Donetska oblast, where more than 120 localities were already without electricity, damage to a power plant has disrupted electricity production. In Kyiv city and oblast, damage to the overhead line left over 260,000 people without power supply. (Pravda 02/01/2024, OCHA 01/01/2024, The Kyiv Independent 02/01/2024)

05 December 2023

In Luhansk oblast, critical access to vaccination against tuberculosis for newborns has been delayed by several months. Vaccines against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus are also unavailable in some cities. Almost all medical facilities have been turned into military hospitals, and most medical care can be obtained only with a Russian passport. (Suspilne 04/12/2023, Luhansk VTSA Telegram 04/08/2023, OCHA 06/11/2023)

28 November 2023

As at November 2023, food access was constrained in 80% of settlements near the front line in Donetsk, Kharkiv, and Luhansk oblasts. More than 900,000 people live within 30km of the front line, where active fighting has resulted in acute humanitarian needs and challenging and uncertain humanitarian access. Access to Russian-controlled areas remains extremely constrained. (UNSC 21/11/2023, OCHA 23/11/2023)

22 November 2023

Since the 2022 conflict escalation, the number of missing people in Ukraine has significantly increased. In May 2023, the Government launched a unified register of missing civilians and soldiers. As at October 2023, more than 26,000 people in Ukraine were missing, 11,000 of whom were civilians. The oblast with the highest number of missing people was Donetsk. (Kyiv 24 05/10/2023, Yur Gazeta 01/11/2023, Justice Info 29/09/2023)

17 November 2023

As at 11 November 2023, power disruptions resulting from Russian attacks on energy infrastructure across six oblasts (Chernihiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kharkiv, Kherson, and Sumy) were affecting 4,500 people. The Ukrainian Government has recorded at least 60 attacks involving both ground and air strikes since September 2023. (The Kyiv Independent 11/11/2023, Military Media Center 16/11/2023, Atlantic Council 22/09/2023)

30 October 2023

In October 2023, shelling led Médecins Sans Frontières to evacuate 150 elderly patients from a hospital in southern Kherson oblast to safer areas in central and western Ukraine. Many patients are vulnerable because of their age, mobility, and chronic health conditions. Prior to evacuation, it was difficult to move the patients to safe shelter in time during attacks, which compromised their safety. The stress of living under constant attacks has led to increased psychiatric conditions. On the other hand, the relocation has led to family separation. Since the full-scale invasion in 2022, conflict has damaged or destroyed 80% of health facilities in Kherson. A lack of available services and capacity to cover needs, particularly in the most conflict-affected areas, constrains healthcare access. Overall, the WHO has verified more than 1,000 attacks on health facilities in Ukraine since 2022. (MSF 30/10/2023, (Health Cluster 28/09/2023)

22 October 2023

In several locations of Donetsk, Kharkiv, Kherson, Luhansk, and Zaporizhzhia oblasts, the local population is heading into the winter months with disrupted access to centralised heating systems or electricity. These localities are in areas that have experienced substantial conflict damage or are under Russian control. While assessments are underway in areas under Ukrainian control, the full scale of needs in areas under Russian control is unknown. (REACH 20/11/2023, ACAPS accessed 21/11/2023)

current crises
in Ukraine


These crises have been identified through the INFORM Severity Index, a tool for measuring and comparing the severity of humanitarian crises globally.

Read more about the Index

UKR002 - Russia-Ukraine conflict

Last updated 31/12/2023


Drivers

Conflict
Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

4.3 Very High

Access constraints

5.0

Analysis products
on Ukraine

Ukraine: quarterly humanitarian access update

06 February 2024

Ukraine: quarterly humanitarian access update

DOCUMENT / PDF / 10 MB

This report aims to compare access challenges across different Ukraine oblasts to inform humanitarian responders and support their decision-making. It is part of the ACAPS quarterly analysis of access constraints, with the last report published on 8 November 2023.

Humanitarian access
Ukraine: humanitarian implications of mine contamination 

24 January 2024

Ukraine: humanitarian implications of mine contamination 

DOCUMENT / PDF / 1 MB

This report aims to improve awareness and understanding of the extent and impact of EO contamination in Ukraine, the response to it, and the challenges that responders are facing. 
 

Ukraine: regional social protection overview

21 November 2023

Ukraine: regional social protection overview

DOCUMENT / PDF / 1 MB

This report presents an overview of the available national social protection services and benefits for Ukrainian refugees who have TP in six host countries: Czechia, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. The report also looks at the extent to which these benefits are accessible and help refugees meet their needs. The selection of the six countries considered the ACAPS regional dataset and Regional overview.

Protection
Poland: loss of temporary protection status and social benefits for Ukrainian Refugees

14 November 2023

Poland: loss of temporary protection status and social benefits for Ukrainian Refugees

DOCUMENT / PDF / 2 MB

Reports that some Ukrainian refugees in Poland had their temporary protection (TP) status revoked despite still meeting the criteria for protection began in October 2022. There have also been reports that some refugees who do not meet the legal criteria for their TP status to be revoked have stopped receiving family benefits, including those who have not left Poland. 

Mixed migrationProtection
Ukraine: quarterly humanitarian access update

08 November 2023

Ukraine: quarterly humanitarian access update

DOCUMENT / PDF / 10 MB

This report aims to compare access challenges across different Ukraine oblasts to inform humanitarian responders and support their decision-making. It is part of the ACAPS quarterly analysis of access constraints, with the last report published on 13 July 2023.

Humanitarian access
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