Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.80 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.1.90 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.2.70 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.70 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.5.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
The Eastern Migration Route: from Ethiopia to Saudi Arabia
Despite the conflict and dire humanitarian situation, Yemen remains the largest mixed migration route for migrants heading to Gulf countries from East Africa. An estimated 500,000 migrants arrived in Yemen between 2016–2019. In 2019 alone, over 138,000 migrants crossed the Gulf of Aden to Yemen. Arrivals started to decrease sharply in April 2020, when the first case of COVID-19 was reported in Yemen and mobility restrictions were imposed. Between April 2020 and April 2021, only 15,500 migrants arrived in Yemen. Arrivals have started to increase again since June 2021, although they remain below pre-COVID-19 levels.? Most migrants and refugees in Yemen come from Ethiopia (over 90%) and Somalia, with the vast majority being adult males and a smaller percentage of children. Women make up 18% of the total.? IOM estimates that approximately 30,000 migrants are currently stranded in Yemen and in urgent need of humanitarian assistance.?
Migrants and refugees in Yemen are vulnerable during every phase of their journey. In addition to the direct risks associated with the armed conflict, they often face language and cultural barriers to accessing humanitarian services. They generally lack social safety nets and frequently face discrimination from the host population in relation to access to already scarce resources, including food, housing, healthcare, and employment. Migrants have serious protection needs and are at risk of exploitation and abuse. Discrimination, detention, kidnapping, torture, rape, and forced recruitment are extremely common. Authorities often detain migrants and refugees regardless of their status. They are held in makeshift detention centres with little to no services, including poor sanitation, resulting in dangerous health conditions.?
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
Yemen faced Extreme humanitarian access constraints in the past six months, scoring 5/5 in ACAPS Humanitarian Access Index. The humanitarian access situation has been deteriorating compared to the last reporting period (July-December 2021). The change was mainly due to the filling of some information gaps regarding violence against humanitarians. In the last six months violent incidents against humanitarians were recorded, contributing to a higher access score.
For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – July 2022.
Information Gaps and Needs
There is a lack of data on the migrant situation in Yemen. Little is known about the exact number of migrants, their location, or their needs due to access constraints.
Protection: migrants and refugees in Yemen continue to experience severe human rights violations, including detention, forced deportation to frontlines and torture. At the same time trafficking remains a serious protection risk. An increasing number of refugees and migrants report incidents of abuse and trafficking on their journey to Yemen and on arrival. Increasing numbers of unaccompanied minors are reaching Yemen. They are often vulnerable to abuse, child labour and prostitution. ?
Food insecurity: malnutrition is common among migrants and refugees in Yemen. They are in need of food assistance and nutrition interventions, and are more likely to face challenges accessing markets.
Health: Increased stigmatisation of migrants as carriers of COVID-19 limits their access to health services.
Education: estimations suggest that more than 80% of male refugee children and more than 70% female refugee children who do not go to school, either doing nothing or engaging in begging. ?