Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.60 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian constraints.5.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Yemen: Crisis Impact Overview
Yemen Analysis Ecosystem
Yemen: Drivers of food insecurity
Long-standing conflict between the government and the Houthi movement escalated in 2015. The crisis has exacerbated historic vulnerabilities including chronic poverty, weak governance, corruption, over-dependence on imports, dwindling oil revenues, and water scarcity.?After President Hadi was forced to resign, an international coalition led by Saudi Arabia and the UAE began bombing Houthi-controlled areas. At least 24.1 million people in Yemen need humanitarian assistance.?In January 2019, some 64,000 people were in Catastrophe (IPC-5) levels of food insecurity, nearly 5 million people in Emergency (IPC-4) and 10.9 million in Crisis (IPC-3).?
Some 19.7 million people lack adequate healthcare, of whom 14 million are in acute need of assistance.?Around 300,000 suspected cholera cases and 578 deaths (CFR 0.19%) have been reported since the start of 2019.?Approximately 2,500 suspected cases are reported daily and 21 out of 23 governorates are affected. 17.8 million people lack access to WASH services, including 12.6 million acutely in need, exacerbating the situation.?Fighting constrains access to affected areas and the rainy season (April to August) will likely accelerate the spread of the disease.?In Yemen both rainy and dry conditions aggravate the spread of disease.
Widespread violations of international humanitarian law, including the targeting of civilians and civilian infrastructure by airstrikes and shelling, have resulted in loss of life, displacement, and destruction of infrastructure.?The UN brokered ceasefire has reduced violence in Al Hudaydah but increased it in other locations. Around 3.34 million people are internally displaced, dispersed across all 22 governorates; the majority having been displaced since March 2015.?Migrants and refugees, mostly from Ethiopia, continue to arrive in southern Yemen, where reports show that authorities have arbitrarily detained migrants in informal detention centres with little to no services. The situation is dire with poor sanitation and health conditions.?
INFORM measures Yemen's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high, at 7.8/10.?
27/06: On 20 June WFP partially suspended operations in northern Yemen following continued interference from local authorities who have been diverting aid away from intended distribution points or blocking distribution entirely. WFP attempted to introduce biometric registration as a measure to prevent aid diversion but were prevented from doing so. The decision of WFP to suspend activities is temporary, but it is already affected 850,000 people in Sana'a city. Humanitarian organisations face increasing access restrictions across Yemen and ais is unable to reach people in need.?
11/06: Intense rains in recent weeks have led to flash flooding in over 10 governorates affecting nearly 70,000 people (including some 18,000 IDPs) and caused multiple casualties. The 22 May Stadium, where about 3,000 migrants are detained has also flooded. As most districts are already affected by cholera, flooding is very likely to intensify the spread of the disease. There is an immediate need for emergency shelter, food and NFIs. Limited access, due to flooded roads and limited authorisations, is hampering the identification of affected people. ?
Insecurity, administrative constraints, entry restrictions, violence against humanitarian workers, and obstruction of civilian mobility hamper access. 6.5 million people live in hard-to-reach areas.?Fighting exacerbates access challenges, particularly in the heavily populated western coastal areas. High fuel prices limit transportation of aid, the mobility of affected populations and increase the price of commodities. Checkpoints, landmines and explosive remnants of war, damaged roads, and difficult terrain hinder movement. Armed actors have attempted to block aid from reaching groups suspected of disloyalty, directing it to groups more supportive of their agenda or selling it on the black market. Despite the blockade lifting in 2018, impediments to imports and aid, enforced by belligerent parties, hampers aid delivery. Access to basic goods may decrease if the UN brokered ceasefire fails and fighting resumes over the strategic Al Hudaydah port. The UN brokered ceasefire in December 2018 reduced violence around the port, but fighting increased elsewhere, including Hajjah and Al Dhale’e.?
Download the full Humanitarian Access Overview
No. of people affected
The floating storage and offloading (FSO) terminal SAFER, a previously converted oil tanker, is moored in the Red Sea off the coast of Ras Issa, 50km northwest of Al Hudaydah port. Since 2015, the FSO has been under Houthi control; however, they have stopped maintaining the structure. The FSO has been neglected probably due to lack of capacity, coupled with the fact that following the Saudi-led coalition naval blockade in 2015 and airstrikes on the Al Hudaydah port’s infrastructure, the Houthis were unable to carry out any type of oil operation.
The Houthis have been demanding a share of the one million barrels of oil on board the vessel. Until recently, they had prevented experts from Yemen’s Ministry of Oil or the UN from accessing the FSO SAFER. Some Saudi experts have proposed moving the vessel to Bahrain for maintenance, however the Houthis have refused. The Houthis are demanding a share of the oil revenues as a condition for allowing access to the vessel for maintenance work and unloading. However, on 10 June they allowed access to UN officials for an assessment. Without intervention for maintenance in the coming months, the vessel is likely to break or even explode, because of the lack of inert gas. Topping up the vessel with inert gas during maintenance is essential to avoid the vessel being in contact with hydrocarbon gases, which would cause a fire or explosion.
The possibility of a serious leakage or even explosion increases year on year due to continued lack of maintenance. Furthermore, even small accidents or fires on board have the potential to spiral out of control. If Hadi government experts attempt to approach the vessel, there is a risk of conflict on or near the vessel.
The vessel contains an estimated 1.14 million barrels of crude oil. If an oil spill occurs, the environmental impact will be catastrophic, affecting people living in the coastal area of Yemen (est. 8.9 million) and the coastal regions of Eritrea (est. 517,200) (ACAPS projections based on IOM and Eritrea baseline population figures). In Yemen, the most affected area will likely be Al Hudaydah governorate as the FSO terminal is 50km northwest of al Hudaydah port.
An oil spill would certainly lead to the pollution of the Red Sea and eventually groundwater and soil contamination as the oil evaporates. This would change the entire ecosystem, and pollute the fishing and agricultural food chain. In addition, the shipping traffic in the Red Sea might be blocked for oil spill containment and cleanup. The most vulnerable are the inhabitants of the coastal region because they will be directly affected by pollution of waters and halt of imports of basic commodities. An explosion of the facility will also change the Red Sea marine environment, possibly reducing fishing yields for generations.
The vessel oil spill or explosion is likely to lead to the disruption of economic activities, such as fishing, one of the main livelihood activities for households living in the Red Sea coastal region of Yemen, as well as agriculture, and trade. This will further affect the already dire livelihood conditions of households in the region, reducing their income and ability to meet basic needs.
The closure of the area will also halt imports through Al Hudaydah ports. The majority of food (70% of all imports) and fuel (40-50% of all imports), as well as the majority of medicines and humanitarian aid, enter through Al Hudaydah ports. As Yemen is an import and aid dependent economy, a possible explosion of the vessel or oil spill will aggravate the food and health crisis in the country.
On top of the the potential environmental devastation and economic impact, an oil spill or explosion of the FSO SAFER will likely break the fragile ceasefire in Al Hudaydah established under Stockholm Agreement, and lead to possible escalation of conflict in the governorate, due to increased tensions between the Houthis and Hadi’s government
Food security: 238,000 people in IPC Phase 5 (Catastrophe) food insecurity levels, indicative of extreme food gaps, and significant mortality due to outright starvation or the combination of acute malnutrition and disease.?
Health: 19.7 million people in need of basic healthcare, including more than 14 million with acute needs.?
WASH: 17.8 million people in need of WASH assistance. Of those, 12.6 million are in acute need.?
Yemen Analysis Hub
The ACAPS Yemen Analysis Hub provides inter-sectoral, forward-looking analysis to support a stronger evidence base for humanitarian decision making in Yemen. Learn more about the Yemen Analysis Hub.
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Information Gaps and Needs
More granular information is required to better understand the specific needs of vulnerable groups.?