Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.70 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.5.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
COVID-19: Impact on Yemen
Yemen: Escalation of conflict in Al-Jawf and Marib
Volatility of the the Yemeni Riyal: drivers and impact
Yemen: Crisis Impact Overview
Yemen Analysis Ecosystem
The decade long conflict between the government and the Houthi movement escalated in 2015. The crisis has exacerbated historic vulnerabilities including chronic poverty, weak governance, corruption, over-dependence on imports, dwindling oil revenues, and water scarcity.? After President Hadi fled the capital Sana’a to the southern port city of Aden, an international coalition led by Saudi Arabia and the UAE began bombing Houthi-controlled areas. At least 24.1 million people in Yemen need humanitarian assistance.? In January 2019, some 64,000 people were in Catastrophe (IPC-5) levels of food insecurity, nearly 5 million people in Emergency (IPC-4) and 10.9 million in Crisis (IPC-3).?
Approximately 19.7 million people lack adequate healthcare, of whom 14 million are in acute need of assistance.? Around 300,000 suspected cholera cases and 578 deaths (CFR 0.19%) have been reported since the start of 2019.? From January to June 2019, there were 517,020 suspected cases and 755 deaths (CFR 0.15%) from cholera, which is already more suspected cases and deaths than what was recorded for the whole of 2018.? All governorates are affected, with 2,500 suspected cases reported daily. 17.8 million people lack access to WASH services, exacerbating the situation.? Fighting and bureaucracy restrict access to affected areas and the rainy season (April to August) will likely accelerate the spread of the disease. In Yemen, both rainy and dry conditions aggravate the spread of disease.
Widespread violations of international humanitarian law, including the targeting of civilians and civilian infrastructure by airstrikes and shelling, have resulted in loss of life, displacement, and destruction of infrastructure.? From the beginning of 2018 to the end of June 2019, approximately 6,850 civilian causalities and 2,650 civilian deaths have been recorded as a direct result of the fighting.? A UN-brokered ceasefire in December 2018 reduced violence in Al Hudaydah, however, fighting has continued on numerous active frontlines across the country. In 2019 an additional 300,000 people have been displaced bringing the total number of internally displaced people (IDPs) to an estimated 4 million people dispersed across all governorates. The majority having been displaced since March 2015.? Migrants and refugees, mostly from Ethiopia, continue to arrive in southern Yemen. April and May 2019 have seen some of the highest monthly averages of arrivals. IOM estimates that 18,320 refugees and migrants arrived in April 2019 and 18,904 people arrived in May 2019.? This is despite voluntary humanitarian return (VHR) flights coordinated by the Mixed Migration Working Group throughout May and June 2019 for migrants detained in informal detention centres with little to no services.
INFORM measures Yemen's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high, at 7.8/10.?
31/03: Heavy rain and flash floods have caused casualties and severe damage to infrastructure in Aden, Lahj, Abyan, Taiz, Ad Dali’, Al Maharah and Hadramawt governorates since 24 March. Flooding was most severe in Lahj within IDP sites and in Crater, Al Mualla and Al Sheik Othman districts in Aden, where it killed two people and injured four. In Al Sawn, Hajr, Mayfa and Brom districts in Hadramawt houses, roads, bridges were destroyed and livestock drowned.
An estimated 28,000 displaced people in 60 IDP sites in the seven governorates reported damage to shelters, mattresses, and losing their stockpiles of food. Water and electricity networks were damaged, leading to power cuts. Sewage and drainage systems were severely damaged as well. Operational actors were unable to assess the extent of damage due to residing water.
Seasonal rainfall is expected in Yemen from April to August. Displaced people living in urban settlements or informal sites are the most likely to be affected. Poor sanitation and damaged sewage systems are likely to contribute to the spread of diseases like cholera, malaria and dengue fever.?
24/03: Fighting between government and Houthi forces in and around Nihm and Al Jawf has led to the forced displacement of 5,700 families (39,900people) into Marib governorate since mid January. IDPs are in need of humanitarian assistance, in particular shelter. Most of the new arrivals have moved to Marib city and the surrounding district. This area is already hosting over 750,000IDPs from previous conflicts.
Violence has been increasing across multiple locations in Yemen, including in Nihm (north East of Sana’a), Al Hodeidah, Ta’iz and Sana’a since the beginning of 2020.
Humanitarian agencies are attempting to respond but ongoing fighting, as well as pre-existing logistical and bureaucratic restraints, severely hamper operations.Read ACAPS briefing note on Marib here
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. For more information related to the outbreak in Yemen, see our special report here.
Access continues to be very challenging due to conflict in the south between the Government of Yemen and the Southern Transitional Council (STC), and bureaucratic constraints in the north. Over 6 million people live in 75 hard to reach districts, with bureaucracy and conflict the main impediments to meeting humanitarian needs. Conflict blocks people from markets and services, particularly in Aden, Al Hodeidah, Ad Dhali’ and Hajjah. Fuel and gas shortages disrupt electricity, water, sanitation and health services and raise the cost of basic goods. On 20 June 2019, the World Food Programme suspended food distribution in Sana’a for over a month due to Houthi restrictions on beneficiary selection and monitoring. Project approvals in the north take over 100 days on average. Agencies in the south face challenges at checkpoints, particularly for northern staff. Access could decrease further if the Stockholm agreement, or Saudi-led talks in Jeddah, fail, resulting in renewed conflict.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
As the COVID-19 virus continues to spread globally and international travel reduces, the virus continues to spread to neighbouring countries. Despite precautions by national authorities and WHO to minimise the risk of virus transmission, identification of an infected person already in Yemen, fails to self-isolate effectively and infects others. Due to a lack of test kits and fear of reporting, the virus spreads to many others before the authorities realise it is in country. Before long, crisis-affected vulnerable populations become infected. The virus spreads rapidly due to poor living conditions, high population density and poor hygiene practice. The close proximity of dwellings, insufficient hygiene products and clean water access, and lack of public awareness continue to spread the virus to vulnerable people groups in Yemen.
- Confirmed cases increase surrounding countries
- Confirmed cases increase among humanitarian staff connected to Yemen
- Confirmed case in Yemen
- Insufficient test kits in Yemen
- Insufficient hygiene items
- Water prices rise
- Continued air travel into Yemen
- Lack of purchasing power among households to buy hygiene kits
- Poor health infrastructure
COVID-19 spreads rapidly through the population. A proportion of cases are hospitalised as hospitals struggle to implement sufficient protective measures for COVID-19 treatment wards. Within a month, many deaths are reported and increasingly stringent movement restrictions begin to be observed, but the number of infections and deaths continues to rise sharply. Death rates are higher than the global average due to the underlying poor health conditions, lowered immunity among malnourished population, and limited medical resilience in the general population.
Yemen Analysis Hub
The ACAPS Yemen Analysis Hub provides inter-sectoral, forward-looking analysis to support a stronger evidence base for humanitarian decision making in Yemen. Learn more about the Yemen Analysis Hub.
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Information Gaps and Needs
More granular information is required to better understand the specific needs of vulnerable groups.?