Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.60 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
The conflict in Ukraine is largely fuelled by ethnic and political divisions surrounding Ukraine’s relationship with Russia. Protests against Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych erupted in November 2013. A violent crackdown by state security forces followed, drawing more protesters. By May 2014, President Yanukovych had fled the country, the Russian military took over and formally annexed Ukraine’s Crimea region, and pro-Russian separatists in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of eastern Ukraine declared independence, resulting in active conflict.?
Since 2014, more than 3,000 civilians have died, more than 7,000 have been injured, and approximately 1.5 million people have been displaced. Although the conflict has largely become a stalemate in recent years, clashes and shelling occur regularly, affecting 5.4 million people in eastern Ukraine, particularly those near the contact line that divides government-controlled areas (GCAs) and non-government-controlled areas (NGCAs).?
Despite multiple ceasefire agreements, violations are regularly reported and critical civilian infrastructure including water and electricity systems are frequently damaged. Shelling and landmine contamination, especially in NGCAs, limits the ability to deliver services such as infrastructure repair or emergency medical transportation. Older people are more likely to remain in these areas and are therefore disproportionally affected by isolation and limited access to WASH, healthcare, food, and livelihoods.?
INFORM measures Ukraine's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be medium, at 4.6/10.?
There are no recent developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. For more information on the impact of COVID-19 in Ukraine, see the relevant paragraph below.
Although the conflict in Eastern Ukraine has reached a stalemate in recent years, insecurity and administrative restrictions continue to constrain humanitarian access. The presence of landmines and indiscriminate shelling have restricted the movement of people and humanitarian agencies within non-government-controlled areas (NGCA) in Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts. Administrative requirements from both government and non-government authorities have delayed aid delivery and forced organisations to scale back their programming, especially in NGCA. COVID-19 restrictions have affected the operations of crossing points. As at December, only two border crossing points were open for crossings (one in Donetsk and one in Luhansk). The crossing point allowing travel from Luhansk GCA to Luhansk NGCA – Stanytsia Luhanska – does not have the structural capacity to allow for the transportation of heavier goods and materials, which have to be transported manually. The transit of cargo convoys through Donetsk NGCA into Luhansk NGCA is also challenging and unreliable because of lengthy approval procedures. Temporary closures, document requirements, and an obligation for people to install a contact tracing mobile application to access GCA have led to increased delays at crossing points. On 25 November, the Government of Ukraine approved a list of humanitarian exemptions that would still allow crossing into GCA in case of future crossing point closures, streamlining the process for entry into GCA. ?
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
WASH: Active conflict has damaged water treatment facilities, pipelines, and pumps and limits repairs. Water cuts, limited water treatment options, and inability to pay for hygiene products are common. Additionally, 81% of heating in Donetsk and Luhansk relies on water-based systems.?
Protection: Landmines and IEDs pose a significant risk, especially near the contact line, where up to 1 million crossings are recorded monthly, the majority are pensioners traveling to collect social payments. Checkpoints require vulnerable populations to stand for hours, exposed to natural elements and the most conflict-affected areas. Civil documentation issued by separatist authorities is not recognised by Ukraine, and around 57% of births in NGCAs are unregistered.?
Health: Power shortages, damaged infrastructure, and disruptions in water systems have affected the functioning of health facilities, especially in NGCAs. Many health professionals fled in 2015. Healthcare is characterised by high prices, medicine shortages, and outdated equipment. This is particularly concerning given that 30% of the population in conflict-affected areas are elderly and suffer from chronic diseases.?
Up-to-date information on needs in NGCAs of Luhansk and Donetsk is minimal as access is very limited.
Humanitarian needs assessments often focus on needs in GCAs and NGCAs of Luhansk and Donetsk while there is little information on needs in Crimea.