Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.40 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.80 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
The military staged a coup on 1 February 2021, declaring fraud in the November 2020 multiparty general election won by the National League for Democracy. The military junta ordered a year-long state of emergency under sections 417 and 418(a) of the 2008 constitution and promised to hold new elections afterwards. On 1 August, the military extended the state of emergency until August 2023, with the same promise of holding elections afterwards. There is reduced access to internet, banking, health and education services because of the coup, and displacement and armed clashes have expanded to new regions. The dual impacts of the political crisis and COVID-19 pandemic resulted in increased food insecurity, poverty, and disruption of livelihoods. An additional two million people are in need of humanitarian assistance since the coup.?
Protests against the coup and a civil disobedience movement (CDM) spread countrywide. The protests are concentrated in the Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi, and Yangon regions. The military junta and informal armed groups have responded with violence against protestors present on the ground, including health practitioners. The health system is largely disrupted, and response to COVID-19 is further complicated because of the coup and the resulting intercommunal tensions. Around 145,000 school and university educators are suspended for joining the CDM, and military personnel are present in and around education facilities. Only 10% of around nine million pupils returned to school as a result of insecurity and anti-coup sentiment. ?
The National Unity Government (NUG) was established in April, claiming to be the legitimate representative of Myanmar. The NUG formed the People’s Defence Force (PDF) in early May to unite anti-coup resistance. The military clashed with the PDF in several urban and rural areas, including Mandalay city, the central Magway region, and the southeast. By end of July, 200,000 people had been displaced in Myanmar since the coup; around 140,000 people in the southeast remained displaced as at late August. Low-intensity explosions targeting government buildings and infrastructure are also taking place across the country. ?
An estimated 63,000 people were temporarily displaced in Sagaing region between 4 – 13 September because of armed clashes. Access of humanitarian responders to the area was not granted by the authorities, while urgent humanitarian needs were reported. The most affected areas were Kani, Myaung, Tabayin, Shwebo, Yinmarbin townships, and Shwebo city. ?
For more information, please read our latest briefing note on the impact of the February coup here.
Post Coup displacement
Source : UNHCR 04/10/2021 - https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/89017
Since the 1 February military coup, the overall health system has been experiencing continuous disruptions. Thousands of healthcare professionals have joined the civil disobedience movement and refuse to work with the military junta. The strikes are severely affecting the public healthcare system, which accounts for around 80% of Myanmar's health facilities. COVID-19 testing has declined from up to 18,000 tests a day to less than 2,000 per day between February and early June. COVID-19 numbers are likely an underestimate given the lack of testing and staff shortages.
A long-underfunded health system, political tensions, and healthcare staff strikes are aggravating the latest COVID-19 surge in Myanmar, fuelled by the highly contagious Delta variant that is sweeping across Southeast Asia. The political climate is not conducive to an effective COVID-19 emergency response given the overwhelming civilian mistrust in the authorities, and would require a neutral intermediary. ?