• Crisis Severity ?
    2.1
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    3.0
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0.5
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    3.4
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    3.0
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Overview

07/07/2021

The military staged a coup on 1 February 2021, declaring fraud in the November 2020 multiparty general election won by the National League for Democracy. The military junta ordered a year-long state of emergency under sections 417 and 418(a) of the 2008 constitution and promised to hold new elections afterwards. The coup resulted in increased food insecurity and poverty, disruption of livelihoods, and reduced access to internet, banking, health and education services. Displacement and armed clashes expanded to new regions, resulting in increased humanitarian needs.?

Protests against the coup and a civil disobedience movement (CDM) spread countrywide. The protests are concentrated in the Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi, and Yangon regions. The military junta and informal armed groups have responded with violence against protestors present on the ground, including health practitioners. Around 145,000 school and university educators are suspended for joining the CDM, and military personnel are present in and around education facilities. Only 10% of around nine million pupils returned to school as a result of insecurity and anti-coup sentiment. ?

The National Unity Government (NUG) was established in April, claiming to be the legitimate representative of Myanmar. The NUG formed the People’s Defence Force (PDF) in early May to unite anti-coup resistance. The military clashed with the PDF in several urban and rural areas, including Mandalay city, the central Magway region, and the southeast. Low-intensity explosions targeting government buildings and infrastructure are also taking place across the country. In Kayah state, a local armed group – the Karenni People’s Defence Force – was formed in support of the NUG’s PDF; the military responded by launching attacks that resulted in the displacement of 100,000 people in late May, and humanitarian access was severely disrupted as a result of insecurity and roadblocks. By mid-June, 200,000 people had been displaced in Myanmar since the coup.?

Latest Developments

26/07/2021

No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.

ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.

For more information, please read our latest briefing note on the impact of the February coup here.

COVID-19

15/07/2021

A long-underfunded health system, political tensions, and healthcare staff strikes are aggravating the latest COVID-19 surge in Myanmar, fuelled by the highly contagious Delta variant that is sweeping across Southeast Asia. The demand for oxygen supplies has increased, and tensions between the military and civilians are growing because of mutual mistrust. After long queues of people looking for supplies emerged outside oxygen factories across Yangon and Mandalay cities in July, the State Administration Council started prioritising the delivery of oxygen supplies from private plants to public hospitals instead of individuals.

Since the 1 February military coup, the overall health system has been experiencing continuous disruptions. Thousands of healthcare professionals have joined the civil disobedience movement and refuse to work with the military junta. The strikes are severely affecting the public healthcare system, which accounts for around 80% of Myanmar's health facilities. COVID-19 testing has declined from up to 18,000 tests a day to less than 2,000 per day between February and early June.

The Health Ministry detected three mutant strains in mid-June, including the Delta variant. Stay-at-home lockdowns are currently in place in 45 townships across the country, with ten in the Yangon region alone.

As at 14 July, there were around 200,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19. The numbers are likely an underestimate given the lack of testing and staff shortages. As at 4 June, over three million vaccine doses had been administered to around 1.75 million people out of a population of over 52 million. Myanmar will receive six million COVID-19 vaccines from China by August and two million from Russia, but the political climate is not conducive to an effective COVID-19 emergency response given the overwhelming civilian mistrust in the authorities, and would require a neutral intermediary. ?