Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.90 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.70 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Sudan is both a destination and transit country for asylum seekers, refugees, and migrants from at least ten countries. These include refugees from Eritrea, the Central African Republic (CAR), Ethiopia, Chad, Syria, and Yemen. Refugees in Sudan are settled in camps, out-of-camp settlements, and urban areas across 18 states. Of the 1.1 million refugees in Sudan, about 75% (763,000 people) are from South Sudan – 51% of whom are women. Among the refugee population, 48% are under 18 years old. Khartoum and White Nile states host two-thirds of all South Sudanese refugees in the country, and Khartoum has the highest number among all states. After Uganda, Sudan is hosting the second-highest number of refugees fleeing violence in South Sudan.
Eastern Sudan hosts more than 133,000 Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees and asylum seekers – including new arrivals and protracted refugees – who live across Al Jazirah, Gedaref, Kassala, Red Sea, and Sennar states. In November 2020, Ethiopian refugees from the Tigray region began to arrive in eastern Sudan, fleeing conflict in Tigray. In February 2021, Blue Nile state also received new refugees from the Benishangul Gumuz region of Ethiopia, who were fleeing intercommunal violence.?
There are 2.5 million IDPs in Sudan. Most of them are in Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile states, which have also been epicentres of conflict over the past 17 years. These are also the areas with the highest percentage of people in need – 52% of all people in these three states are in need of humanitarian assistance. Most refugees live in out-of-camp settlements, host communities, and urban areas, while others are living in 21 camps (nine in eastern Sudan, nine in White Nile state, two in East Darfur state, and one in Central Darfur).?
Syrian and Yemeni refugees are considered as ‘brothers and sisters’ by the Government of Sudan under the Arab/Islamic notions of asylum, and are not required to register with UNHCR and the Commissioner for Refugees upon arrival. More than 95,000 Syrians and Yemenis in need are registered in Khartoum state in order to receive assistance, however. Intercommunal conflicts in CAR since 2017 have resulted in continued new arrivals of CAR refugees in Central and South Darfur, and flows of new CAR refugee arrivals are expected to continue in 2021.?
IDPs report livelihoods, education, and shelter as their main priority needs, while for refugees shelter is the main need, followed by health and livelihoods. For people living in camps and informal settlements, priority needs are livelihoods, health, shelter, education, and water.?
Over 61,000 refugees have arrived in eastern Sudan since the beginning of conflict in Tigray region (Ethiopia). Most refugees are living in reception areas, camps, or with host communities across Kassala and Gedaref state. Needs remain across all sectors. Access to people in need is challenged by fuel shortages and the remoteness of some locations?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.