• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 5,759,000 People in Need [?]
  • 1,864,000 IDPs [?]
  • 1,089,000 Refugees in Sudan [?]



After four months of protests,  Al-Bashir was ousted in a military coup on 11 April and replaced by a two-year transitional military council (TMC) headed by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan. The inability of President Al-Bashir’s government to address Sudan’s severe economic challenges triggered countrywide demonstrations in December. ? Protests will likely continue until a civilian-led government is formed. Protestors face high protection concerns as security forces regularly use violence to disperse them. ? Sudan has faced an economic crisis since the beginning of 2018, resulting in continuously rising prices and shortages of essential items including medicines, fuel, and flour. Nationwide food security and nutrition outcomes have been deteriorating. ?

In Darfur, armed groups are waging protracted insurgencies, despite ceasefire agreements. Protection concerns are increasing as the United Nations-African Union Mission in Dafur (UNAMID) withdraws troops leading up to its closure in June 2020, especially in Jebel Marra, where conflict between government forces and the Sudan Liberation Movement – Abdel Wahid al-Nur (SLM-AW) continues. ?Conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states increased significantly after South Sudan gained independence in 2011. The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) took arms against the inclusion of these states to Sudan without opportunity for democratic elections or consultations. Clashes between the Sudanese government forces and the SPLN-N reduced in 2018, though a high level of insecurity remains.?

Violence, food insecurity, malnutrition and lack of access to basic services have caused large-scale internal displacement of 1.9 million IDPs. ?Additionally, Sudan hosts around 1 million refugees, including 850,000 refugees from South Sudan. ?Sudan is a key transit country for migrants from the Horn of Africa heading to Europe. ?

Latest Developments


18/06: At least 1,600 South Sudanese refugees have relocated to Bentiu, South Sudan, following the 5-6 June attacks from host communities on South Sudanese in Omdurman. Reportedly, nine refugees have been killed, seven injured and two are missing in the larger Khartoum area. Several cases of SGBV have been reported.  An additional 200 South Sudanese refugees were relocated to Um Sangour camp in White Nile State. Tensions are rising between South Sudanese refugee and host communities in Khartoum, as host communities are accusing South Sudanese refugees of being responsible for the increased criminality in Khartoum since June. They demand that the refugees leave their settlements. Around 290,000 South Sudanese refugees are living in Khartoum State.?

06/06: On 3 June, Sudanese security forces used live ammunition to disperse peaceful protests outside the military headquarters in Khartoum. At least 100 people were killed and hundreds injured. Availability of health services is restricted as a lack of medicine and hospital beds has been reported. A number of medical staff in makeshift clinics and hospitals have been beaten up.  Security forces have reportedly prevented wounded people and ambulances from entering hospitals. RSF officers are also patrolling Khartoum and setting up roadblocks and internet access has been limited. Protesters in Port Sudan, Al-Gadarif and Sinja have also been attacked by security forces.?

05/06: Most humanitarian assistance has been temporarily suspended in Darfur, including Kalma camp, hosting 128,000 IPDs, after a series of violent incidents took place including the looting of humanitarian supplies. ?


Humanitarian Access



Humanitarian access remains restricted, especially in conflict areas. The security situation has become more unpredictable since a new military regime took power in April 2019, posing access risks. Ceasefire agreements in September 2018 opened access to Blue Nile and South Kordofan, but areas controlled by the SPLM-N remain hard to access. In Jebel Marra, Darfur, UNAMID personnel were sporadically denied access to conflict areas due to insecurity. UNAMID’s retreat reduces safe access as fighting between government forces and the SLM-AW continues. Humanitarian travel policies were eased in 2016, but administrative procedures still present obstacles. Mines, explosive remnants, and poor roads hamper assistance. The economic crisis and countrywide lack of fuel and hard currency hamper aid delivery and access to aid.

Download the full Humanitarian Access Overview



Since 11 April, more than 90 demonstrations have been recorded in over 30 localities in Sudan. Mostly peaceful demonstrations and sit-ins led by the Sudanese Professional’s Association (SPA) will likely continue as protestors and AU Peace and Security Council demand that power is handed over to civilians. However, the military, the National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS), and the Rapid Sudan Forces (RSF) continue to respond to the demonstrations with excessive force.? Between December and May, at least 90 protestors were killed, and over 2,000 protestors were arrested and detained by NISS, largely arbitrarily. Several reportedly died after being tortured in custody. ?

Information Gaps and Needs

  • Lack of regular gender-sensitive needs assessments in all sectors.
  • Lack of information about the security situation in conflict-affected areas.
  • Access to public services often remains unclear in rural and remote areas. 
  • Information about refugees, their whereabouts and the severity of their needs remain limited.

Key Priorities


Food security: An estimated 5.76 million people are severely food insecure, with IDPs and host communities the most affected. IDPs in SPLM-N controlled areas South Kordofan and in the Jebel Marra are at high risk of Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security outcomes at the peak of the lean season (August/September). Food prices are constantly rising, negatively impacting food security. ?

Health: Outbreaks, especially waterborne diseases, are straining limited health services. Severe medicine shortages are reported countrywide. ? Health and hygiene promotion is needed to prevent the spread of diseases in many parts of the country. Some 5.2 million people are in need of healthcare. ?

Protection: Approximately 3.9 million people are in need of protection. Protests increase protection concerns. Civilians across Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile are at high risk due to continuous high insecurity levels.?