2020

COVID-19 and Migrant Vulnerability in Bangladesh, India and Nepal
Created: 13/10/2020 +

Overview

With large working-age populations and limited domestic employment opportunities, South Asian countries are a significant source of migrant labour. South Asia is the second-highest remittance-receiving region in the world, and this money sent back home by migrants plays a crucial role in poverty reduction and improving livelihoods of the households they support. Containment measures imposed in response to the pandemic in both destination and home countries have severely disrupted both the ability of migrants to work and the freedom of movement needed to enable them to return to their homes safely. Secondary impacts of COVID-19 are emerging, including labour shortages within cities that depend on migrant labourers, the stigmatisation of migrant workers who have returned to their home areas, the inability to access any form of social assistance due to lack of formal contracts, and longer-term mental and physical effects of the journey back to their homes. 

Bangladesh: Characteristics of vulnerable households in the Rohingya refugee response
Created: 06/10/2020 +

Overview

This factsheet highlights common household characteristics of vulnerability with the aim of identifying specific needs and support requirements of the most vulnerable. These characteristics are identified through an analysis of major assessments conducted in the last 12 months which investigated household vulnerability. The three households highlighted in this factsheet were commonly identified as most vulnerable in all major assessments reviewed.

Bangladesh: Upazila Profiles in Cox's Bazar
Created: 01/10/2020 +

Overview

This review considers all eight upazilas of Cox’s Bazar. There has been a longstanding lack of investment in the district, particularly in remote upazilas like Ramu, Maheshkhali, Pekua, and Kutubdia. 2011 census data indicates a presence of health, food security and livelihood needs in these areas.These upazila profiles provide contextual background on the Bangladeshi population in Cox’s Bazar district, in relation to the Rohingya population where appropriate, and highlight key information gaps. The profiles seek to provide a better understanding of the risks and vulnerabilities faced by Bangladeshi communities and to strengthen programming within Cox’s Bazar. They are not intended to measure the level of response.

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, Four Months of COVID-19 programming restrictions
Created: 25/08/2020 +

Overview

This edition of the COVID-19 Explained report delves into the lived experiences of Rohingya refugees in the camps, providing more detailed accounts of the problems they are currently facing. This edition highlights the very real secondary impacts resulting from the combined COVID-19 containment measures and the advent of the monsoon. This edition also briefly compares current issues and concerns with those reported in April 2020, in COVID-19 Explained Edition 5, to assess whether there have been any major changes.

Rohingya refugee: Impact of the monsoon and Covid-19 containment measures
Created: 20/08/2020 +

Overview

Extreme monsoon-induced flooding coupled with prolonged inundation in northeast India, eastern Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and northern Myanmar has impacted more than five million people in Bangladesh alone. The Rohingya refugee camps in the south-eastern district of Cox’s Bazar have been largely untouched by this large-scale river flooding. Despite this, the monsoon season continues to impact the Rohingya refugees, with heavy rains and strong winds severely diminishing quality of life. In previous years, the vast majority of shelters and public infrastructure received pre-monsoon support so that they could, to some extent, resist the effects of heavy rainfall and windstorms. However, this year Covid-19 containment measures resulted in a significant reduction in pre-monsoon and monsoon Shelter and Site Development program implementation negatively impacting preparedness and resilience to weather effects.

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, Rohingya report on the epidemic, the stories being told
Created: 17/07/2020 +

Overview

The prevalence and impact of COVID-19 in the camps today remains unclear and different sources of information paint different and conflicting pictures of the situation. 

This edition of COVID-19 Explained explores these reports to better understand how the Rohingya understand their experiences. It is both an exploration of what it could mean if the reports are true and what it means that the reports are believed to be true. The emphasis is on experiential understanding – people’s lived experiences – rather than scientifically verifiable data through a method such as testing. The testimonies are from researchers, their relatives, community leaders, and key contacts in the camps. Whether or not the illness is COVID-19, the exercise unveiled issues within the current response that discourage the Rohingya from seeking testing and treatment for COVID-19 symptoms and explains these fears.

Bangladesh: Short and long term impacts of existing COVID-19 containment measures in Rohingya Refugee Camps
Created: 07/07/2020 +

Overview

This report touches on major information gaps that impact the response’s ability to understand the current state of the pandemic in Cox’s Bazar and aims to draw attention to the potential negative secondary impacts resulting from existing COVID-19 containment measures. It serves as an update to ACAPS’ March 2020 report.

Bangladesh: Impact of COVID-19 on gender programming, Rohingya response
Created: 08/06/2020 +

Overview

On 14 May UNHCR confirmed one Rohingya refugee living in the Kutupalong-Balukhali expansion site had tested positive for COVID-19. As of the date of publication, there are 27 confirmed cases (22% female/78% male) in 9 camps, and a total of 637 (27% female/73% male) cases in Cox’s Bazar district. As the number of confirmed cases rise among the estimated 860,000 Rohingya refugees residing in 34 overcrowded, makeshift camps, humanitarian agencies are likely to face increasing challenges in responding to critical needs. Strict measures have been introduced in an attempt to break the chain of transmission and slow the spread of COVID-19, including a drastic decrease in humanitarian presence in the camps, the suspension of programmes not considered lifesaving, and changes to the ways in which programmes are being delivered in order to maintain physical distancing and adhere to strict hygiene protocols. This analysis will examine how these changes are impacting humanitarian’s ability to deliver gender responsive and gender sensitive programming in order to inform humanitarian responders and enable them to consider strategies to mitigate any risks arising.

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, Rohingya patients report on health services (Illustrated version)
Created: 02/06/2020 +

Overview

COVID-19 Explained - Illustrated version contains nine stories of people seeking healthcare during the pandemic in full. Among the fifty-six stories collected during the research, nine were illustrated to try and convey the full context of what these people felt. We hope you they help transport you into the shoes of the story tellers for a brief moment. As feedback, many participants have said that simply sharing their stories has been a source of relief and have requested more of this activity – which they sometimes call “awareness raising” – the act of making us aware of them seemingly. Perhaps in sharing their nine stories it is also some service to them as much as it is awareness for us.

For more information see the report 'COVID-19 Explained, Rohingya patients report on health services'

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, Rohingya patients report on health services
Created: 02/06/2020 +

Overview

This report follows on from the findings of past COVID-19 Explained Editions and Health Behaviours and COVID-19. For this edition, 56 key informants were requested to provide detailed accounts of their recent experiences of medical consultations and treatments. These experiences were analysed and their findings presented here according to the same qualitative data analysis methods and standards as other COVID-19 Explained editions. Additionally, six illustrated story boards were developed from the interviews and developed separately as an illustrated companion report. It is the hoped that in response to the question “what do these stories mean,” we can find answers by diving deeper into the singular stories and experiences of the people we serve.

See the illustrated version of this report

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, Different and Unequal
Created: 04/05/2020 +

Overview

This edition of COVID-19 Explained explores the differences in attitudes, knowledge and understanding of COVID-19 between key demographic groups. This data was gathered several weeks after the beginning of the ongoing COVID-19 awareness campaigns. For this edition, 42 interviews with women, girls, boys and men from Rohingya and host communities were conducted, including 9 interviews with people with disabilities, to gain a better understanding of how these dimensions result in different experience and impacts related to COVID-19 preparedness. It is hoped that this will help support nuanced communication strategies and programmatic consideration of affected populations’ ages, genders, population groups and abilities. Based on this consultation, it is clear that everyone has been impacted significantly in different ways that will continue to come into focus as the response protracts.

Bangladesh: COVID-19 Explained, Different and Unequal
Created: 04/05/2020 +

Overview

This edition of COVID-19 Explained explores the differences in attitudes, knowledge and understanding of COVID-19 between key demographic groups. This data was gathered several weeks after the beginning of the ongoing COVID-19 awareness campaigns. For this edition, 42 interviews with women, girls, boys and men from Rohingya and host communities were conducted, including 9 interviews with people with disabilities, to gain a better understanding of how these dimensions result in different experience and impacts related to COVID-19 preparedness. It is hoped that this will help support nuanced communication strategies and programmatic consideration of affected populations’ ages, genders, population groups and abilities. Based on this consultation, it is clear that everyone has been impacted significantly in different ways that will continue to come into focus as the response protracts.

Rohingya response: Safe and dignified burials and COVID-19
Created: 21/04/2020 +

Overview

The estimated 855,000 Rohingya refugees that currently reside in the southern region of Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh have been identified as highly vulnerable to COVID-19. Lessons from previous epidemic responses, as well as reports from other countries currently battling COVID-19 outbreaks, make it clear that safe and dignified burials are an essential component of containing the outbreak. The aim of this report is to highlight the need to ensure containment of COVID-19 is aligned with the maintenance of important cultural and traditional practices, and the critical role that community engagement plays in achieving that objective. It provides an overview of current burial practices and traditions among Muslim Rohingya and considers the potentials changes that could be promoted, in line with the Government of Bangladesh, Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR), Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) and WHO Bangladesh joint guidelines on “Safe Burial/ Funeral/Management of Body of a Patient Died of COVID-19”. This guidance is designed for health workers; specific guidance for a camp setting has not yet been developed.

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, The spaces between Allah and Science (summary)
Created: 19/04/2020 +

Overview

Between the 30th of March and 3rd April 2020, 17 consultations were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding on how religious beliefs are influencing Rohingya’s understanding of COVID-19, particularly how they are impacting people’s behaviour and perception towards key COVID-19 prevention messaging. This one-page document presents a summary of the first half of Edition 4 of COVID-19 Explained to support the development of risk communication and community engagement strategies for COVID-19 prevention measures.

Bangladesh: COVID-19 Explained,The spaces between Allah and Science
Created: 19/04/2020 +

Overview

This week’s consultations investigate how, for Rohingya, Allah’s will and COVID-19 are intertwined and how this impacts their interpretation of the current situation and their uptake of official COVID-19 response measures. This includes an examination of religious views of COVID-19, how this might affect healthcare guidance, information on Ramadan & Eid in light of Coronavirus, burial practices and challenges in the camps. The information in this report is intended to support Community Engagement, Site Management and Protection actors who require a deeper understanding of religious practices within the Rohingya community related to COVID-19.

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, No isolation without consultation (summary)
Created: 09/04/2020 +

Overview

This series of reports is based on focus group discussions and Key Informant Interviews with Rohingya living across Ukhia and Teknaf Camps. The objective of these consultations is to ensure Rohingya’s voices are included in all stages of the COVID-19 response and provide an avenue for Rohingya refugees to express their questions and concerns. COVID-19 Explained aims to provide decision makers with an understanding of the current perceptions, understanding and information being circulated about COVID-19 among Rohingya within the camps and inform programming decisions that are being made in preparation for a potential COVID-19 outbreak. These consultations will also feed into messaging and outreach strategies designed and implemented by IOM and other humanitarian response agencies.

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, No isolation without consultation
Created: 09/04/2020 +

Overview

This series of reports is based on focus group discussions and Key Informant Interviews with Rohingya living across Ukhia and Teknaf Camps. The objective of these consultations is to ensure Rohingya’s voices are included in all stages of the COVID-19 response and provide an avenue for Rohingya refugees to express their questions and concerns. COVID-19 Explained aims to provide decision makers with an understanding of the current perceptions, understanding and information being circulated about COVID-19 among Rohingya within the camps and inform programming decisions that are being made in preparation for a potential COVID-19 outbreak. These consultations will also feed into messaging and outreach strategies designed and implemented by IOM and other humanitarian response agencies.

Rohingya response: Health behaviours & COVID-19
Created: 03/04/2020 +

Overview

The 855,000 Rohingya Refugees currently residing in 34 makeshift camps in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh are highly vulnerable to COVID-19. Lessons learned from previous epidemic responses, such as the response to Ebola across affected African countries, highlight the critical role perceptions have on health seeking behaviour, trust in humanitarian responders and the willingness of affected communities to comply with public health measures.

Among the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh, distrust and lack of confidence in the medical system of the response is widespread. The implications of this on the effectiveness of any COVID-19 response cannot be overstated or ignored. The perception that the Rohingya have of the health system in the camps is their reality and is highly informed by their culture, history, and their understanding of sickness and health. Therefore, if the perceptions and opinions of Rohingya on healthcare are not taken properly into account and if community awareness and engagement are not prioritized as a key pillar of the COVID-19 response, lessons indicate that the capacity of response actors to control the outbreak will be severely hindered.

The purpose of this thematic report on health behaviours is to support humanitarian responders in understanding the current perceptions of healthcare, the impact of these perceptions on health seeking behaviour and the direct implications these perceptions and behaviours have on the ability to respond to, and control, a COVID-19 outbreak in the Rohingya refugee camps.

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, Essentially Abandoned
Created: 02/04/2020 +

Overview

This series of reports is based on focus group discussions and Key Informant Interviews with Rohingya living across Ukhia and Teknaf Camps. The objective of these consultations is to ensure Rohingya’s voices are included in all stages of the COVID-19 response and provide an avenue for Rohingya refugees to express their questions and concerns. COVID-19 Explained aims to provide decision makers with an understanding of the current perceptions, understanding and information being circulated about COVID-19 among Rohingya within the camps and inform programming decisions that are being made in preparation for a potential COVID-19 outbreak. These consultations will also feed into messaging and outreach strategies designed and implemented by IOM and other humanitarian response agencies.

Bangladesh: Covid-19 Explained, Overview of Rohingya Perceptions
Created: 26/03/2020 +

Overview

This series of reports is based on focus group discussions and Key Informant Interviews with Rohingya living across Ukhia and Teknaf Camps. The objective of these consultations is to ensure Rohingya’s voices are included in all stages of the COVID-19 response and provide an avenue for Rohingya refugees to express their questions and concerns. COVID-19 Explained aims to provide decision makers with an understanding of the current perceptions, understanding and information being circulated about COVID-19 among Rohingya within the camps and inform programming decisions that are being made in preparation for a potential COVID-19 outbreak. These consultations will also feed into messaging and outreach strategies designed and implemented by IOM and other humanitarian response agencies.

COVID-19: Impact on the Rohingya response
Created: 20/03/2020 +

Overview

The 855,000 Rohingya refugees who are currently residing in 34 overcrowded, makeshift camps in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh are highly vulnerable to COVID-19. The overcrowded and unhygienic conditions increase the potential for the rapid spread of disease. Given the underlying poor health status of the population, and the limited access to health care and the use of communal hygiene facilities the potential mortality and morbidity risk associated with COVID-19 is likely to surpass global averages.

The purpose of this risk report is to support humanitarian responders to understand the primary and secondary risks that a COVID-19 outbreak could pose to the Rohingya Refugee population, based on the idea that this understanding can support mitigation and preparedness measures. This is not a specialised health report, it takes a holistic view of the plausible overall impact.

2019

Vulnerabilities in the Rohingya refugee camps
Created: 20/12/2019 +

Overview

This study found that individuals and households often experience multiple vulnerabilities at once, and that being vulnerable in one way often leads to another form of vulnerability, resulting in an inescapable and vicious circle. Even those who are least vulnerable and appear to have a safety net, such as remittances from abroad, are not completely immune from vulnerability. 

The study was based on the premise that understanding the reasons for, and implications of, vulnerability beyond the typical1 humanitarian categories, should help humanitarian agencies provide a more nuanced response to needs, based on evidence. Additionally, this study should support the design of future assessments to fill gaps in understanding and knowledge. Preliminary findings from this fieldwork informed the design of the Joint Groups such as pregnant and lactating women, elderly, disabled, infants, minority religious and ethnic groups are typically considered vulnerable. Multi-Sector Needs Assessment (JMSNA, 2019) and this vulnerability report is intended to provide an evidence base to inform a more tailored and better use of resources as the response moves forward.

Rohingya Refugee response: Child-Focused Secondary Data Review
Created: 21/11/2019 +

Overview

Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh has been a place of refuge for Rohingyas fleeing violence in Myanmar on numerous occasions since 1978. August 2017 saw the beginning of the largest and most rapid influx of Rohingya refugees, over 730,000 Rohingya, including 400,000 children, fled across the border in response to a genocide.

They joined an estimated 300,000 Rohingya who had already fled violence in previous years, creating the world’s largest refugee camps. As of October 2019, there are 914,998 refugees living in 34 sites in Ukhiya and Teknaf sub-districts of Cox’s Bazar. Of those, 55 to 60% are children, 4% of households are headed by a child, and there is an estimated 11% of people with disabilities. 

This document collates and analyses publicly available secondary information focusing on children and youth since the influx of Rohingya Refugees at the latter end of 2017 favouring the most recent reports. Over 35 documents and assessments have been reviewed and data from the MSNA and the NPM where relevant have also been included. Technical advisors from Save the Children reviewed the document and contributed to the identification of information gaps.

The aim of the document is to give an overview of children’s needs both inside and outside the camps and identify child related information gaps. The desk review will then be used as a basis to guide the design and methodology of the primary data collection of a children’s consultation led by Save the Children.

Rohingya refugee response: Strengthening gender analysis
Created: 12/11/2019 +

Overview

This report reflects on the way in which an analysis of gender issues, including pre-crisis gender roles and relations, as well as current gender dynamics within the Rohingya refugee camps can support improved gender sensitive humanitarian programming. It is based on discussions with key informants (KIs) from the humanitarian community, participation in cluster, sub-cluster, and working group meetings in Cox’s Bazar and a review of secondary data.

Humanitarian Access Overview
Created: 31/10/2019 +

Overview

ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview provides a snapshot of the contexts where humanitarian action faces the biggest constraints. Our analysts have scored each context on nine variables in order to rank and compare humanitarian access worldwide. Crisis affected populations in about 60 countries are not getting the humanitarian assistance they need due to access constraints. Eight new countries were included in the ranking since the last ACAPS HumanitarianAccess report released in May 2019. Among the indicators, ‘Physical constraints’ and ‘Restrictions and obstruction to services and assistance’ are the most common challenges. This report presents the score boards for all the countries assessed. Narratives are provided only for countries with high, very high, or extreme constraints.

Rohingya Influx Overview: pre-cyclone and monsoon season analysis
Created: 03/05/2019 +

Overview

The April 2019 Rohingya Influx Overview (RIO) describes the evolution of Rohingya refugees’ needs in Cox’s Bazar, based on latest Needs and Population Monitoring (NPM) Site Assessment data collected between 14 January and 19 February 2019.

The report also addresses the potential impact of any severe weather events, as Bangladesh has entered the April-May cyclone season, to be followed by the June-September monsoon season.

Lessons learned: Needs Assessments in Cox's Bazar
Created: 04/04/2019 +

Overview

This report reflects on lessons that can be learned from needs assessments in the context of the Rohingya crisis. It is based on reviews of assessments in Cox’s Bazar since 2017 and conversations with key assessment stakeholders in the Rohingya response, grounded in global experience and assessment practice. It suggests a series of key recommendations and considerations covering all stages of the assessment process, with the goal to improve future assessments and data quality. It covers assessments targeting Rohingya refugees as well as the Bangladeshi host community.

The report begins by emphasizing the need for coordination and analysis and discusses implications and limitations of different data collection methods. In the next section, it highlights linguistic challenges, showing how they can impact data quality and assessment results. This is followed by a discussion of age, gender, and diversity considerations in the context of needs assessments and operational constraints. The next section discusses enumerator selection and training, followed by suggestions on communicating assessment results back to affected communities. After a series of key literature recommendations, the report closes by showcasing, in a Spotlight, the differences between two major datasets.

Rohingya population: WASH needs in Cox's Bazar
Created: 11/03/2019 +

Overview

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the WASH conditions and needs in the Rohingya camps in Cox’s Bazar. It presents the WASH Severity Index, which classifies the Rohingya population at camp-level into five groups by level of need: very high severity, high severity, moderate severity, low severity, and very low severity. 
These severity scores were calculated for water, sanitation, and hygiene as well as an overall WASH index. Need is calculated using a combination of indicators from the REACH-UNICEF WASH Household Assessment – Monsoon Follow-up. The Index thus helps to understand where the severity of WASH needs is the highest. The severity index is calculated on the current level of response. There is no “no severity” category as all Rohingya refugees are dependent on aid.
In this report, findings from the REACH-UNICEF survey are contrasted with data from the Needs and Population Monitoring (NPM) survey. A secondary data analysis, interviews with WASH experts, and field visits complement the results.

2018

Rohingya Influx Overview (RIO): key issues and needs
Created: 19/12/2018 +

Overview

This report covers changes and key issues recorded in the Rohingya refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar district of Bangladesh between July, September, and November. It includes a review of secondary data, as well as the results of a multi-sector prioritisation tool developed by the Analysis Hub: the Basic Needs Gap Index. This index is based on Needs and Population Monitoring (NPM) Round 13 data and covers gaps in shelter and NFIs, food, health, sanitation and water supply, and is meant to illustrate the severity of need across camps and blocks in the Rohingya settlements.

CrisisInSight: Global Risk Analysis
Created: 17/12/2018 +

Overview

The Global risk analysis outlines 18 contexts where a significant deterioration is expected to occur within the next six to nine months, leading to a spike in humanitarian needs. This report comes as a result of ACAPS daily monitoring and independent analysis of the globe to support evidence-based decision-making in the humanitarian sector.

Considering the diversity and complexity of the crises, combined with the number of contexts included in the report, it has not been possible to cover each crisis in detail. Instead, we have highlighted the broad evolution of the crises to flag potential deteriorations and inform operational, strategic, and policy decision-makers.

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Rohingya crisis: situation overview and basic needs index
Created: 13/12/2018 +

Overview

This traffic lights diagram is based on the result of multisectoral priortrisation tool developed by the Analysis Hub. The tool uses NPM site assessments Round 13 data from four sectors to priortise needs geographically, at majhee block level. The 45 indicators used are selected from the sectors to build up a composite index, and combined to make up Basic Needs Gap Index at majhee block level. Each indicators are evaluated for their inclusion in the priortrisation tool and selected according to the amount of variation it revealed. The Betti-Verma method is used to calculate the weight of each indicator and multiple deprivation tool is used to calculate the index in STATA. Additional explanation can be found in the Rohingya Influx Overview. Camps and sites are too large and diverse to be effective planning devices. The analysis for the Basic Need Gap Index was done at majhee block level because the majority of differences and variations in needs are between majhee blocks; and camp level analysis can hide the pockets of high need area.

Rohingya crisis: situation overview and gaps in basic needs
Created: 10/12/2018 +

Overview

The traffic lights diagram above is based on the result of multisectoral priortrisation tool developed by Analysis Hub. The tool uses NPM site assessments Round 12 data from five sectors to priortise needs geographically, at majhee block level. The 32 indicators are selected from the sectors to build up composite index; combine to present basic need gap index at majhee block level. Each indicators are evaluated for their inclusion in the priortrisation tool and selected according to the amount of variation that each indicator revealed. The Bette Verma method is used to calculate the weight of each indicator and multiple deprivation tool is used to calculate the index in STATA. Additional explanation can be found in Rohingya Influx Overview. Camps and sites are tool large and diverse to be effective planning devices. The analysis for basic need gap was done at majhee block level because the majority of differences and variations in needs are between majhee blocks; and camp level analysis can hide the pockets of high need area. To illustrate this, each gap in above diagram is presented at majhee block level. 

Rohingya crisis: situation overview and gaps in basic needs
Created: 10/12/2018 +

Overview

The traffic lights chart depicts an initial multi-sector overview of needs from Round 11 of the NPM Site Assessment – these results are preliminary and require further analysis. Of the 37 indicators have been used in the construction of the Basic Needs Gap, have already been analysed and included in the previously-documented Prioritisation Index and its component sector sub-indices. This product displays results at both camp and mahji block-level, as pockets of high need and other variations cannot be understood through camp-level analysis alone. The size of each point reflects the number of people in need. Sites and blocks are scaled separately. The percentage of persons with needs in that sector are listed next to each site.

Rohingya crisis: situation overview and gaps in basic needs
Created: 10/12/2018 +

Overview

The traffic lights diagram above is based on the results of a multi-sector prioritisation tool developed by the Analysis Hub. The took uses NPM data from five sectors to prioritise needs geographically, at the block level. The 30 indicators which form the prioritisation tool have been weighted and combined into the Basic Needs Gap – it and its component sector gaps, are included in the excel workbook accompanying this one-pager. Indicators were evaluated for their inclusion in the prioritisation tool and selected according to the amount of variation that each indicator revealed. Additional explanation may be found in the Rohingya Influx Overview; and the methodology behind the tool can be found in the technical brief Building a Prioritization Index with NPM Round 9.

Rohingya crisis: situation overview and summary indicators
Created: 10/12/2018 +

Overview

This chart contains headline indicators broken down by Sector. This has been done to present a initial overview of the results whilst a more thorough report on Round 9 is developed. The NPM Site Assessment is a regular data collection and analysis exercise.
For Round 9, more than 1,800 respondents (mostly mahjis) were interviewed. The total Rohingya population enumerated is 898,312. This summary includes 38 camps and excludes 15,844 people across 77 blocks out of 1,807, or 2% of the population, whose responses have been anonymised as they are predominantly small settlements in host communities and may be easily identified. 

Rohingya Influx Overview (RIO): Key issues and needs
Created: 16/11/2018 +

Overview

This report covers changes and key issues recorded in the Rohingya refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar district of Bangladesh between July and September/October. It includes a review of secondary data, as well as the results of a multi-sector prioritisation tool developed by the Analysis Hub: the Basic Needs Gap Index. This index is based on NPM Round 12 data and covers gaps in shelter and NFIs, food, health, sanitation and water supply, and is meant to illustrate the severity of need across camps and blocks in the Rohingya settlements.

Rohingya Influx Overview (RIO): 2018 Monsoon
Created: 24/10/2018 +

Overview

This report covers changes recorded in the Rohingya refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar district of Bangladesh during the monsoon season. It includes a review of secondary data, as well as the results of a multi-sector prioritization tool developed by the Analysis Hub, called the Basic Needs Gap Index. This index is based on NPM Round 11 data and covers gaps in shelter and NFIs, food, health, sanitation and water supply, and is meant to illustrate the severity of need across camps and blocks in the Rohingya settlements.

Bangladesh: Floods in Moulvibazar and Sylhet
Created: 21/06/2018 +

Overview

Heavy rainfall recorded in northeastern Bangladesh since 12 June exacerbated by a sudden increase of river water levels due to upstream flooding in India resulted in severe flooding in Moulvibazar and Sylhet districts. Flooding affected the majority of upazilas in both districts, leading to severe infrastructure damage and acute needs. Over 2,000,000 people live in the most affected upazilas. At least 250,000 of them have been affected, and over 12,000 reside in temporary shelters in Moulvibazar. An estimated 570,000 people have also been affected in Sylhet.

Rohingya crisis: Governance and community participation
Created: 06/06/2018 +

Overview

The aim of this report is to map out governance structures and community participation initiatives adopted in different types of settlements. It touches upon the role of the Government of Bangladesh, the majhi system, the Camp Committees, the Para Development Committees in collective sites with host communities, and other community participation initiatives.

Cyclones in Bangladesh: Lessons Learned
Created: 04/04/2018 +

Overview

The following lessons have been drawn from the impact of cyclones in Bangladesh and specifically Cox’s Bazar district. Other literature reviewed includes lessons from cyclones in Myanmar. These are considered relevant for the current Rohingya crisis. 
 

Rohingya crisis: Cyclones background
Created: 27/03/2018 +

Overview

Organisations working on the Rohingya response are preparing for the cyclone season. This brief provides background on cyclones in Bangladesh and an overview of their impact, to put the emergency preparedness planning into a wider perspective. The 2018 cyclone seasons will be different from those in the past. The influx of over 650,000 refugees residing in temporary shelters and who are not included in national preparedness and early warning mechanisms creates a significantly different level of vulnerability.

Rohingya crisis: pre-monsoon review summary report
Created: 19/03/2018 +

Overview

This note summarizes a longer document on the potential impact of pre-monsoon and monsoon rains in the Rohingya camps of Cox’s Bazar. It has drawn on the past impact of rains in the Rohingya settlements and in Cox’s Bazar and Bangladesh more generally. The Rohingya camps at this scale have never existed in this season before so there is no direct past experience of how they have withstood a monsoon in Bangladesh. The number of people in the settlements and the nature of the temporary living conditions and facilities all indicate that the impact of a normal rainy season will make the provision of on-going response to the influx challenging. A severe monsoon will have a serious impact on needs.

Disclaimer: This note is based on a subjective assessment of the potential impact of the monsoon on camps and is considered a worst-case scenario.

Access a longer version of this report

Rohingya crisis: pre-monsoon review
Created: 19/03/2018 +

Overview

This brief outlines the potential impact of rains, floods and landslides in the camps of Cox’s Bazar. To do so, it draws on past impact of rains in these camps, as well as in Cox’s Bazar and in Bangladesh more generally. It also draws on similar camp settings and natural disasters in other countries. Wherever possible, it is grounded in informal discussions with experts in their sector, meeting notes and field observations. The camps at this scale have never existed in this season before, so there is no direct past experience of how they have withstood a monsoon. 

Disclaimer: This note is based on a subjective assessment of the potential impact of the monsoon on camps, and is considered a worst-case scenario.

Access a shorter version of this report

Humanitarian Access Overview
Created: 14/03/2018 +

Overview

Our methodology uses 9 indicators grouped in 3 categories:
-    Access of humanitarian actors to affected population
-    Access of people in need to humanitarian aid
-    Security and physical constraints
Each category is measured through proxy indicators, such as violence against personnel, denial of needs, or active hostilities.
Data is collected at the country level and may therefore not show disparities between sub-regions.

Read the Humanitarian Access Overview in Spanish

Read the Humanitarian Access Overview in French

 

Rohingya crisis: Host communities review
Created: 30/01/2018 +

Overview

The aim of this brief is to investigate the situation and needs of host communities in Cox’s Bazar. This brief first evaluates host communities’ needs related to all sectors, and it also looks at potential sources of tension among host communities and the Rohingya population.

2017

Review: Rohingya influx since 1978
Created: 11/12/2017 +

Overview

In the 20th century, there have been multiple waves of movement of Rohingya population from Rakhine State in Myanmar to Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh and back. The 2017 exodus is by far the largest. Following each previous displacement to Bangladesh, some of the Rohingya population have returned to Myanmar, driven by both initiatives from the Government of Bangladesh to repatriate the Rohingya population, and the Rohingya population’s own initiative in returning home. Difficult humanitarian conditions, lack of legal status and inability to work in Bangladesh have contributed as pull factors to return home.

A review of documentation on the situation for those residing inside and outside camps in Bangladesh reveals patterns of persistent needs and constraints since 1978. These constraints include congestion, restrictions on freedom of movement and continued statelessness and denial of rights – which, in turn, reduce the possibility of generating income, and drive high rates of malnutrition, low access or quality of WASH facilities, low availability of educational facilities, significant protection concerns, the risk of epidemics, and high prevalence of negative coping mechanisms.

This report is a review of available literature on the Rohingya influxes into Bangladesh since 1978. The review seeks to provide a historical context to the current influx, in terms of population movement, status and sector responses. This report aims to help inform current and future humanitarian response.

Rohingya crisis: Diphtheria
Created: 11/12/2017 +

Overview

As of 6 December, 110 clinically diagnosed cases of diphtheria, including six deaths have been reported, with most cases in the Balukhali makeshift settlement (BMS), located in the larger Kutupalong–Balukhali expansion site. Other cases have been detected in Jamtoli and Thangkhali settlements. Low vaccination coverage amongst the camp population increases their vulnerability to the disease, which is particularly deadly for children. Congestion in sites, unevenly distributed health facilities and poor WASH infrastructure facilitate the spread of the disease, particularly during winter. An emergency vaccination campaign targeting 250,000 children is to begin on December 10. Difficult terrain and lack of access to some areas in expansion sites are likely to hamper health services provision. Awareness raising will be important to ensure as many children as possible access immunisations.

Humanitarian Overview: an analysis of key crises into 2018
Created: 30/11/2017 +

Overview

Humanitarian Overview 2018 examines major humanitarian crises worldwide to identify likely developments and corresponding needs. The report focuses on countries where the crisis trend indicates a deterioration in 2018 and a corresponding increase in need. It also includes countries where crisis is not predicted to worsen, but is likely to remain severe: Ethiopia, Iraq, Nigeria, Palestine, Sudan, and Syria. Across these countries, food security, displacement, health, and protection are expected
to be the most pressing humanitarian needs in 2018. 

Rohingya Crisis: situation analysis
Created: 22/11/2017 +

Overview

As of 21 November, an estimated 622,000 Rohingya refugees fled Myanmar to Bangladesh. The influx began on 25 August, after the Myanmar Army launched security operations in northern Rakhine state. In September, an average of approximately 14,500 people arrived daily. This dropped to an approximate average of 3,100 arrivals per day in October. The estimated number of people in need was 1.2 million in the latest Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) of October 2017. This number was comprised of the pre-existing caseload of Rohingya in Bangladesh (government estimates of 300,000), the new influx since 25 August (at 509,000 on 3 October), people in host communities (300,000), and a contingency for a further 91,000 people. 

Myanmar and Bangladesh: Rohingya Displacement
Created: 07/11/2017 +

Overview

As of 5 November, some 609,000 people have fled northern Rakhine state in Myanmar to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh following an eruption of violence on 25 August. A large number have likely also been internally displaced within Rakhine state, but data is not available on this. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), an insurgent group, launched multiple attacks on government posts in Rakhine state, to which the Myanmar military responded with heavy force. However, it has been reported that military clearance operations targeting Rohingya may have begun prior to the ARSA attack. There are high levels of need among Rohingya both in Cox’s Bazar and also likely among IDPs in northern Rakhine. Rohingya in central Rakhine have also been affected to a lesser extent.

Bangladesh: Displacement Influx of Rohingya
Created: 26/09/2017 +

Overview

As of 22 September, an estimated 429,000 Rohingya people have arrived in Bangladesh since 25 August (IOM 22/09/2017). Rohingya started fleeing northern Rakhine, Myanmar as the Myanmar Army is carrying out crackdown operations in the area. Operations, which have killed at least 400 people, started after the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) carried out attacks against police- and border posts (Thomson Reuters Foundation 03/09/2017). The Myanmar Army has been accused of extrajudicial killings, torture, rape, burning of shelters, and arbitrary arrests of the minority Rohingya population. Rohingya people are entering Bangladesh at six points across the Naikonchari border: Gundum, Tombru, Jolpaitoli, Reju Aamtali, Baishpari, and Kolabagan (The Daily Star 29/08/2017). An unknown number could still be stranded at the border. 

Myanmar and Bangladesh: Rohingya displacement and protection crisis
Created: 08/09/2017 +

Overview

Some 270,000 people have fled Rakhine state in Myanmar to Bangladesh following an eruption of violence on 25 August. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), an Islamic insurgent group, launched multiple attacks on government posts in Rakhine state, and Myanmar security forces then launched counter attacks causing mass displacement. An estimated 400,000 Rohingya are still trapped in conflict zones of Rakhine state, where needs are unknown and access virtually impossible. In Bangladesh, the sudden influx, on top of an existing crisis, means needs are high. In addition to the 270,000 who have fled so far, a further 40,000 are stranded in an accessible area near the border after being stopped by border guards.   

Humanitarian Access Overview
Created: 17/08/2017 +

Overview

Our methodology uses 9 indicators grouped in 3 categories:
-    Access of humanitarian actors to affected population
-    Access of people in need to humanitarian aid
-    Security and physical constraints
Each category is measured through proxy indicators, such as violence against personnel, denial of needs, or active hostilities.
Data is collected at the country level and may therefore not show disparities between sub-regions.

Bangladesh: Landslides
Created: 21/06/2017 +

Overview

Landslides that began on 13 June in Chittagong division have resulted in 160 deaths and 187 injured. 6,000 structures have been destroyed, and other key infrastructure damaged. The area affected is in a region referred to as the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). Reports indicate that approximately 80,000 people across five districts – Bandarban, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Khagrachari and, Rangamati – are affected.

Bangladesh: Tropical Storm Mora
Created: 01/06/2017 +

Overview

Cyclone Mora made landfall near Kutubdia upazila, Cox’s Bazar district, southeast Bangladesh on 30 May. As of 31 May, the Bangladesh Meteorological Department has lowered the danger signal related to the cyclone from 10 to 3, as the storm weakened. Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Chittagong. Vulnerable settlements where refugees and undocumented migrants and refugees, many of whom are Rohingya, reside in Cox’s Bazar have been hit particularly hard. Over 475,000 were evacuated to cyclone shelters before the storm made landfall and people have started to return home. 

Bangladesh: Refugee Influx
Created: 18/01/2017 +

Overview

Three border posts along the Myanmar–Bangladesh border were attacked on 9 October by Harakah al-Yaqin, a resurgent group in Rakhine state which has supposed links to the Rohingya. In response, the Myanmar Army has deployed more troops into the northern Rakhine area, mainly in Maungdaw, and has conducted a security operation. At least 130 people have since been killed in raids and skirmishes. A state of emergency has been declared.

2016

Bangladesh Floods
Created: 03/08/2016 +

Overview

Heavier than usual monsoon rains have caused floods in Bangladesh since 20 July. Some 3,200,000 people have been affected and up to 42 have died as of 3 August. Up to 300,000 people have been displaced in 16 different districts, mostly in the Northern and Central provinces (including Bogra, Faridpur, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Kurigram, Kustia, Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Manikganj, Nilphamary, Rajbari, Rangpur, Sariatpur, Sirajgonj, Sunamgonj, and Tangail). Most urgent needs are food provisions, WASH, and Emergency Shelter.

Bangladesh: Floods August 2014
Created: 13/04/2016 +

Overview

Since 13 August continuous rainfall in north and northeastern Bangladesh, together with the onrush of water from upstream, have caused flash floods in low-lying and densely populated areas. More than 800,000 people have been affected, including 500,000 displaced. As of 25 August, humanitarian actors on the ground report nine deaths. The most affected districts include Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, Kurigram, Rangpur, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Sirajganj, Sunamjong and Sylhet.