Short notes

Rohingya crisis: Diphtheria
Created: 11/12/2017 +

Overview

As of 6 December, 110 clinically diagnosed cases of diphtheria, including six deaths have been reported, with most cases in the Balukhali makeshift settlement (BMS), located in the larger Kutupalong–Balukhali expansion site. Other cases have been detected in Jamtoli and Thangkhali settlements. Low vaccination coverage amongst the camp population increases their vulnerability to the disease, which is particularly deadly for children. Congestion in sites, unevenly distributed health facilities and poor WASH infrastructure facilitate the spread of the disease, particularly during winter. An emergency vaccination campaign targeting 250,000 children is to begin on December 10. Difficult terrain and lack of access to some areas in expansion sites are likely to hamper health services provision. Awareness raising will be important to ensure as many children as possible access immunisations.

Briefing notes

Rohingya Crisis: situation analysis
Created: 22/11/2017 +

Overview

As of 21 November, an estimated 622,000 Rohingya refugees fled Myanmar to Bangladesh. The influx began on 25 August, after the Myanmar Army launched security operations in northern Rakhine state. In September, an average of approximately 14,500 people arrived daily. This dropped to an approximate average of 3,100 arrivals per day in October. The estimated number of people in need was 1.2 million in the latest Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) of October 2017. This number was comprised of the pre-existing caseload of Rohingya in Bangladesh (government estimates of 300,000), the new influx since 25 August (at 509,000 on 3 October), people in host communities (300,000), and a contingency for a further 91,000 people. 

Myanmar and Bangladesh: Rohingya Displacement
Created: 07/11/2017 +

Overview

As of 5 November, some 609,000 people have fled northern Rakhine state in Myanmar to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh following an eruption of violence on 25 August. A large number have likely also been internally displaced within Rakhine state, but data is not available on this. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), an insurgent group, launched multiple attacks on government posts in Rakhine state, to which the Myanmar military responded with heavy force. However, it has been reported that military clearance operations targeting Rohingya may have begun prior to the ARSA attack. There are high levels of need among Rohingya both in Cox’s Bazar and also likely among IDPs in northern Rakhine. Rohingya in central Rakhine have also been affected to a lesser extent.

Bangladesh: Displacement Influx of Rohingya
Created: 26/09/2017 +

Overview

As of 22 September, an estimated 429,000 Rohingya people have arrived in Bangladesh since 25 August (IOM 22/09/2017). Rohingya started fleeing northern Rakhine, Myanmar as the Myanmar Army is carrying out crackdown operations in the area. Operations, which have killed at least 400 people, started after the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) carried out attacks against police- and border posts (Thomson Reuters Foundation 03/09/2017). The Myanmar Army has been accused of extrajudicial killings, torture, rape, burning of shelters, and arbitrary arrests of the minority Rohingya population. Rohingya people are entering Bangladesh at six points across the Naikonchari border: Gundum, Tombru, Jolpaitoli, Reju Aamtali, Baishpari, and Kolabagan (The Daily Star 29/08/2017). An unknown number could still be stranded at the border. 

Myanmar and Bangladesh: Rohingya displacement and protection crisis
Created: 08/09/2017 +

Overview

Some 270,000 people have fled Rakhine state in Myanmar to Bangladesh following an eruption of violence on 25 August. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), an Islamic insurgent group, launched multiple attacks on government posts in Rakhine state, and Myanmar security forces then launched counter attacks causing mass displacement. An estimated 400,000 Rohingya are still trapped in conflict zones of Rakhine state, where needs are unknown and access virtually impossible. In Bangladesh, the sudden influx, on top of an existing crisis, means needs are high. In addition to the 270,000 who have fled so far, a further 40,000 are stranded in an accessible area near the border after being stopped by border guards.   

Bangladesh: Landslides
Created: 21/06/2017 +

Overview

Landslides that began on 13 June in Chittagong division have resulted in 160 deaths and 187 injured. 6,000 structures have been destroyed, and other key infrastructure damaged. The area affected is in a region referred to as the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). Reports indicate that approximately 80,000 people across five districts – Bandarban, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Khagrachari and, Rangamati – are affected.

Bangladesh: Tropical Storm Mora
Created: 01/06/2017 +

Overview

Cyclone Mora made landfall near Kutubdia upazila, Cox’s Bazar district, southeast Bangladesh on 30 May. As of 31 May, the Bangladesh Meteorological Department has lowered the danger signal related to the cyclone from 10 to 3, as the storm weakened. Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Chittagong. Vulnerable settlements where refugees and undocumented migrants and refugees, many of whom are Rohingya, reside in Cox’s Bazar have been hit particularly hard. Over 475,000 were evacuated to cyclone shelters before the storm made landfall and people have started to return home. 

Bangladesh: Refugee Influx
Created: 18/01/2017 +

Overview

Three border posts along the Myanmar–Bangladesh border were attacked on 9 October by Harakah al-Yaqin, a resurgent group in Rakhine state which has supposed links to the Rohingya. In response, the Myanmar Army has deployed more troops into the northern Rakhine area, mainly in Maungdaw, and has conducted a security operation. At least 130 people have since been killed in raids and skirmishes. A state of emergency has been declared.

Bangladesh Floods
Created: 03/08/2016 +

Overview

Heavier than usual monsoon rains have caused floods in Bangladesh since 20 July. Some 3,200,000 people have been affected and up to 42 have died as of 3 August. Up to 300,000 people have been displaced in 16 different districts, mostly in the Northern and Central provinces (including Bogra, Faridpur, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Kurigram, Kustia, Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Manikganj, Nilphamary, Rajbari, Rangpur, Sariatpur, Sirajgonj, Sunamgonj, and Tangail). Most urgent needs are food provisions, WASH, and Emergency Shelter.

Bangladesh, Tropical Cyclone Roanu
Created: 23/05/2016 +

Overview

On 21 May, around midday local time (0600 GMT), Tropical Cyclone Roanu made landfall along the southern coastal districts of Bangladesh, bringing heavy rain, winds of up to 88km/h, and storm surges of up to 2m (AFP 21/05/2016).

At least 24 people have been killed (BDNews24 22/05/2016). Some 85,000 structures, including homes and shops, have been destroyed or damaged (NDTV 23/05/2016; (AFP 22/05/2016). At least 15 districts are affected, with Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Noakhali, Lakshimpur, Bhola, Barguna and Patuakhali among the worst affected (Newsnext 22/05/2016). 500,000 people were evacuated ahead of the cyclone (AFP 21/05/2016).  Returns had already reportedly begun on 21 May (AFP 21/05/2016; 22/05/2016). As of the evening of 22 May, some media reports cited disaster management officials as saying that 150,000 people were in evacuation shelters or open areas. (Newsnext 22/05/2016). The current number of evacuees is not clear, nor is the number of people in need of aid.

Bangladesh: Floods August 2014
Created: 13/04/2016 +

Overview

Since 13 August continuous rainfall in north and northeastern Bangladesh, together with the onrush of water from upstream, have caused flash floods in low-lying and densely populated areas. More than 800,000 people have been affected, including 500,000 displaced. As of 25 August, humanitarian actors on the ground report nine deaths. The most affected districts include Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, Kurigram, Rangpur, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Sirajganj, Sunamjong and Sylhet. 

Thematic reports

Review: Rohingya influx since 1978
Created: 11/12/2017 +

Overview

In the 20th century, there have been multiple waves of movement of Rohingya population from Rakhine State in Myanmar to Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh and back. The 2017 exodus is by far the largest. Following each previous displacement to Bangladesh, some of the Rohingya population have returned to Myanmar, driven by both initiatives from the Government of Bangladesh to repatriate the Rohingya population, and the Rohingya population’s own initiative in returning home. Difficult humanitarian conditions, lack of legal status and inability to work in Bangladesh have contributed as pull factors to return home.

A review of documentation on the situation for those residing inside and outside camps in Bangladesh reveals patterns of persistent needs and constraints since 1978. These constraints include congestion, restrictions on freedom of movement and continued statelessness and denial of rights – which, in turn, reduce the possibility of generating income, and drive high rates of malnutrition, low access or quality of WASH facilities, low availability of educational facilities, significant protection concerns, the risk of epidemics, and high prevalence of negative coping mechanisms.

This report is a review of available literature on the Rohingya influxes into Bangladesh since 1978. The review seeks to provide a historical context to the current influx, in terms of population movement, status and sector responses. This report aims to help inform current and future humanitarian response.

Humanitarian Overview: an analysis of key crises into 2018
Created: 30/11/2017 +

Overview

Humanitarian Overview 2018 examines major humanitarian crises worldwide to identify likely developments and corresponding needs. The report focuses on countries where the crisis trend indicates a deterioration in 2018 and a corresponding increase in need. It also includes countries where crisis is not predicted to worsen, but is likely to remain severe: Ethiopia, Iraq, Nigeria, Palestine, Sudan, and Syria. Across these countries, food security, displacement, health, and protection are expected
to be the most pressing humanitarian needs in 2018. 

Bangladesh JNA Light Waterlogging
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In November 2013, ACAPS supported a 'light' joint needs assessment in southwest Bangladesh, which was a consolidation of the waterlogging situation,  without field assessment, in order to promote a shared situational understanding. This report gathers data on reported needs form a sample of unions in Satkhira, Jessore, Khulna, and Bagerhat districts.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: Waterlogging
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: River Flooding
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: Haor Flooding
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: Flash Floods and Landslides
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: Cyclone
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: Cold Wave
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.