Rohingya refugee crisis
Nearly 1.2 million people including Rohingya refugees and host communities are in need of WASH assistance, of which 853,300 are targeted for water, 914,900 for sanitation and 1,166,000 for hygiene.??
There is limited space for construction of new WASH facilities, making it difficult to scale up response. Moreover, there is a lack of jerrycans for safe water transportation and storage.???As enough safe water is not available, people are drinking water collected from paddy fields, puddles, or hand-dug shallow wells which are often contaminated. ? Unchiprang settlement has no access to groundwater and almost 746,000L of water per day have to be trucked in. Existing water sources are losing the capacity to supply the minimum water requirement, and by January this system may no longer be viable.? 31% of the 4,877 tube wells are broken or dried up and 62% of water available to households is contaminated. ??
There is an acute shortage of all facilities, with an average of 100 people per latrine.?? Overstretched capacity of existing WASH facilities in all makeshift settlements and refugee camps increases the risk of outbreaks of waterborne diseases. Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh and the risk of a cholera epidemic among refugees is high, and as a result WHO is undertaking a large-scale vaccination programme.?? MSF has estimated that given the size of the makeshift settlements, at least 8,000 latrines need to be built, a ratio of one latrine to 50 people, for the emergency phase.?35% of the 27,595 emergency latrines are already full and not functional and 31% of hand pumps are not functional. ??Management of solid waste presents a challanges and the risk of water contamination is high due to the close proximity between latrines and water sources. ?
Monsoon floods 2017
Nearly 7 million people affected by floods in northern and central Bangladesh require some form of WASH assistance. Of these, 3 million people need targeted WASH assistance. These are vulnerable groups such as children, women, adolescent girls, elderly, and disabled. Due to the contamination of water sources - especially tube wells, which are the main source of safe water in affected areas - the affected population is using alternative and unsafe water sources, which may lead to an outbreak of waterborne diseases, and exacerbate any pre-existing health and nutrition issues. Over 65,000 wells and almost 215,000 latrines have been damaged by floods.??