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Country analysis

Türkiye


Türkiye currently hosts the largest number of individuals seeking international protection in the world. As at late 2023, there were over 3.2 million people from Syria and around 300,000 from other countries seeking international protection in the country. Türkiye has been a main transit and destination country within the Eastern Mediterranean migration route since 2014. In 2023, the Turkish authorities recorded around 260,000 migrants with irregular status. The majority of transiting migrants come from the Middle East and Afghanistan to travel to Europe.

In February 2023, multiple major earthquakes struck southeastern Türkiye and northwestern Syria, affecting over nine million people and causing humanitarian needs. The earthquakes killed over 50,000 people, injured more than 107,000, and severely damaged buildings and infrastructure in southeastern Türkiye. The region has also been the site of conflict between government forces and Kurdish armed groups for more than 35 years, with thousands of buildings being destroyed and at least 950,000 people displaced. There are significant information gaps on the displacement status and living conditions of the affected people.

(UNDP/UNHCR 21/12/2023, OCHA 15/08/2023, IOM 24/10/2023, MFA accessed 09/02/2024, ICG accessed 09/02/2024)

Türkiye currently hosts the largest number of individuals seeking international protection in the world. As at late 2023, there were over 3.2 million people from Syria and around 300,000 from other countries seeking international protection in the country. Türkiye has been a main transit and destination country within the Eastern Mediterranean migration route since 2014. In 2023, the Turkish authorities recorded around 260,000 migrants with irregular status. The majority of transiting migrants come from the Middle East and Afghanistan to travel to Europe.

In February 2023, multiple major earthquakes struck southeastern Türkiye and northwestern Syria, affecting over nine million people and causing humanitarian needs. The earthquakes killed over 50,000 people, injured more than 107,000, and severely damaged buildings and infrastructure in southeastern Türkiye. The region has also been the site of conflict between government forces and Kurdish armed groups for more than 35 years, with thousands of buildings being destroyed and at least 950,000 people displaced. There are significant information gaps on the displacement status and living conditions of the affected people.

(UNDP/UNHCR 21/12/2023, OCHA 15/08/2023, IOM 24/10/2023, MFA accessed 09/02/2024, ICG accessed 09/02/2024)

Latest updates on country situation

07 February 2024

One year after the earthquakes that hit Syria and Türkiye in February 2023, humanitarian needs in both countries persist. In Türkiye, as at 18 January 2024, over 670,000 earthquake-displaced people still lived in temporary shelters, mainly in container sites, and needed shelter, NFIs, and WASH assistance. In Syria, the earthquakes aggravated an already existing humanitarian crisis driven by a 12-year conflict accompanied by economic deterioration. In 2024, the number of people estimated to be in need throughout the country increased by 1.4 million compared to the 2023 projection. In northwestern Syria, the area most affected by the earthquake and conflict, over 800,000 people lived in tents and makeshift shelters as at 5 February 2024. Around 2.1 million will require shelter support in 2024, while 1.1 million will require NFI support. WASH, health, and protection needs also remain high in the region. (OCHA 21/12/2023, GSC 05/02/2024, Global Shelter Cluster 25/01/2024)

15 March 2023

On 15 March 2023, the cities of Adiyaman and Sanliurfa in southeast Türkiye were affected by flash floods. The areas involved were already damaged by the earthquakes of 6 and 20 February 2023. The floods destroyed roads and swept cars. Some of the containers housing people displaced by the earthquakes were flooded.
(The Guardian 16/03/2023, BBC 15/03/2023, Aljazeera 15/03/2023)

current crises
in Türkiye


These crises have been identified through the INFORM Severity Index, a tool for measuring and comparing the severity of humanitarian crises globally.

Read more about the Index

REG015 - Turkiye / Syria earthquake (regional crisis)

Last updated 30/11/2023


Drivers

Earthquake

Crisis level

Regional

Severity level

3.6 High

Access constraints

4.0

TUR005 - Türkiye / Syria earthquake

Last updated 27/05/2024


Drivers

Earthquake

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

3.2 High

Access constraints

2.0

REG004 - Syrian Regional Crisis

Last updated 31/05/2024


Drivers


Crisis level

Regional

Severity level

4 High

Access constraints

4.0

REG006 - Eastern Mediterranean Route

Last updated 31/05/2024


Drivers


Crisis level

Regional

Severity level

2.5 Medium

Access constraints

3.0

TUR001 - Country level

Last updated 25/05/2024


Drivers

Displacement
Conflict

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

3.6 High

Access constraints

3.0

TUR002 - Syrian refugees

Last updated 25/05/2024


Drivers

Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

3.2 High

Access constraints

2.0

TUR003 - Mixed Migration

Last updated 25/05/2024


Drivers

Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.1 Medium

Access constraints

2.0

TUR004 - Kurdish conflict

Last updated 25/05/2024


Drivers

Conflict

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

Access constraints

3.0

Analysis products
on Türkiye

Turkiye: situation analysis 120 days after the earthquakes

13 June 2023

Turkiye: situation analysis 120 days after the earthquakes

DOCUMENT / PDF / 2 MB

This report aims to present a comprehensive review of the main needs of the affected population in Türkiye four months after the February 2023 earthquakes, focusing on shelter, temporary settlement support, WASH, and protection.

Natural hazards

Attached resources

Türkiye: Earthquake and flooding impact in Hatay province

02 May 2023

Türkiye: Earthquake and flooding impact in Hatay province

DOCUMENT / PDF / 1,022 KB

Two earthquakes hit southern Türkiye on 6 February 2023, affecting Hatay province. As at 8 April, the province had recorded over 22,000 deaths from the earthquakes, the highest reported across the 11 earthquake-affected provinces in Türkiye. Shelter needs remain an urgent priority.

Natural hazards
Türkiye: Earthquake and flooding impact in Adiyaman province

02 May 2023

Türkiye: Earthquake and flooding impact in Adiyaman province

DOCUMENT / PDF / 912 KB

Two earthquakes hit southern Türkiye on 6 February 2023, affecting Adiyaman province. As at 6 March, a total of 307,000 people were reported to be displaced in the province. As the temperatures are gradually starting to rise, WASH needs are expected to increase.

Natural hazards
Türkiye: Floods

24 March 2023

Türkiye: Floods

DOCUMENT / PDF / 180 KB

On 14 March 2023, only five weeks after two earthquakes struck southeastern Türkiye, severe flooding hit the southern provinces of the country. The most affected areas were Adiyaman and Sanlıurfa, which also suffered from the earthquakes on 6 February. 

Natural hazards
Syria/Türkiye: Update on the impact of earthquakes

14 March 2023

Syria/Türkiye: Update on the impact of earthquakes

DOCUMENT / PDF / 269 KB

One month after the earthquakes that hit Türkiye and Syria on 6 February 2023, recovery response is still underway. The earthquakes severely affected northwestern Syria, where about 4.5 million people live. In Türkiye, the most affected provinces are Adana, Adıyaman, Diyarbakır, Elazıg, Gaziantep, Hatay, Kahramanmaras, Kilis, Malatya, Osmaniye, and Sanlıurfa, where about 14 million people reside, including 1.8 million Syrian refugees. 

Natural hazards

Attached resources

View more

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Syria-Türkiye earthquake

Short-term analysis project

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