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Country analysis

Haiti


At least 5.2 million people in the country needed humanitarian assistance as at December 2022. Food insecurity persists across the country because of the combined effects of natural hazards and poor socioeconomic conditions.

Since the assassination of President Jovenel Moïse, gangs have rapidly expanded their territory. In Port-au-Prince they control major roads and derive revenue from customs, water and electricity distribution systems, and bus services. People affected by gang violence often face killings, persecution, confinement, abduction, robbery, and forced displacement.

A 7.2 earthquake struck southwestern Haiti on 14 August 2021. The presence of criminal gangs in other areas of the country has delayed reconstruction and hindered access to the communities most affected by the earthquake.

As at August 2022, almost 114,000 people were internally displaced either because of increased fighting between criminal gangs in Port-au-Prince (85% of the total displaced population) or by the 14 August 2021 earthquake in southern Haiti (15%).

As at 1 January 2023, over 22,469 suspected cases of cholera (with 18,729 hospitalised), including 450 deaths, were reported in the outbreak declared at the beginning of October 2022. The rapid escalation in the number of cases has put a strain on the capacity of medical facilities to treat cholera. Greater access to vaccines is needed.

(IOM 28/10/2022, The Guardian 12/01/2023, REACH 04/01/2023, PAHO 05/01/2023)

At least 5.2 million people in the country needed humanitarian assistance as at December 2022. Food insecurity persists across the country because of the combined effects of natural hazards and poor socioeconomic conditions.

Since the assassination of President Jovenel Moïse, gangs have rapidly expanded their territory. In Port-au-Prince they control major roads and derive revenue from customs, water and electricity distribution systems, and bus services. People affected by gang violence often face killings, persecution, confinement, abduction, robbery, and forced displacement.

A 7.2 earthquake struck southwestern Haiti on 14 August 2021. The presence of criminal gangs in other areas of the country has delayed reconstruction and hindered access to the communities most affected by the earthquake.

As at August 2022, almost 114,000 people were internally displaced either because of increased fighting between criminal gangs in Port-au-Prince (85% of the total displaced population) or by the 14 August 2021 earthquake in southern Haiti (15%).

As at 1 January 2023, over 22,469 suspected cases of cholera (with 18,729 hospitalised), including 450 deaths, were reported in the outbreak declared at the beginning of October 2022. The rapid escalation in the number of cases has put a strain on the capacity of medical facilities to treat cholera. Greater access to vaccines is needed.

(IOM 28/10/2022, The Guardian 12/01/2023, REACH 04/01/2023, PAHO 05/01/2023)

Latest updates on country situation

22 February 2024

Gang clashes have led to worsening humanitarian conditions in all communes of Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti, since the beginning of February 2024. The latest violent outbreak forced nearly 10,000 people to flee their homes between 1–10 February. Over the past two weeks, intense attacks have occurred in several communes, including Carrefour, Cité Soleil, La Saline, and Tabarre. These events have disrupted economic activities and reduced access to affordable food, medical services, and the education system. (OCHA 21/02/2024, OCHA 19/02/2024, IOM 21/02/2024)

11 February 2024

In 2024, high food insecurity levels – Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and worse – persist in Cité Soleil, a densely populated commune in the Haiti capital of Port-au-Prince. Food access constraints result from insecurity because of gangs, instability from protests in the country, low food availability, and high food prices. Up to 400,000 people reside in the commune, many of whom need humanitarian assistance to access food, protection from violence, and support to access income-generating opportunities. (FEWS NET 11/02/2024, CNN 08/02/2024)

19 January 2024

Since the first week of 2024, there has been a fuel shortage and food price increases in the western departments of Grande’Anse, Nippes, Sud, and Sud-est in Haiti. The reason is a roadblock on National Road 2 in Mariani that began in November 2023. This roadblock is posing a risk of kidnapping or being killed for supply truck drivers delivering goods to these departments. Approximately 55,000 inhabitants have been affected and may require assistance to access food and other essential items. In Nippes, food prices have increased by 66% in January 2024. Thousands of people have been displaced from Mariani in the past months and likely require shelter, food, and protection services. (WFP 19/01/2024, Haiti Libre 23/01/2024)

02 October 2023

On 2 October 2023, UNSC approved the deployment of the Kenyan-led Multinational Security Support Mission to Haiti. The mission has been authorised to support the Haitian National Police in combating gangs and protecting critical infrastructure, including airports, seaports, schools, hospitals, and key intersections. (UNSC 02/10/2023, SCR 02/10/2023)

11 September 2023

Since 12 August 2023, displacement following the eruption of violence in Carrefour-Feuilles and Savanes Pistaches in Port-au-Prince has continued. Worsening insecurity, including the continued threat of violence and assaults from armed groups, kidnappings, the killing of civilians, and the destruction of homes, has intensified population movements. As at 8 September, there were over 20,000 displaced people living with host communities and in temporary sites, such as schools in Bas Peu de Chose, Bois Verna, Champ-de-Mars, Croix Desprez-Ti-Source, and Campeche. Displacement sites are overcrowded, with limited access to food, healthcare, and water aggravating the risk of disease transmission. Cholera cases have already been reported in some sites left by IDPs to seek refuge elsewhere because of insecurity. (UNICEF 09/09/2023, IOM 10/09/2023, IOM 06/09/2023)

05 June 2023

On 3 June 2023, heavy rains across the country caused flooding, rock slides, and landslides, mainly affecting the departments of Centre, Nippes, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, and Sud-Est. The rains have affected almost 37,000 people, including 13,400 displaced, damaged more than 1,200 houses, and affected other infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, schools, and health centres, although the exact numbers are unknown. In Centre department, flooding has caused damage to crops, which could affect food security. The affected population needs shelter, food, hygiene kits, and drinking water. There is also a need for activities such as water pumping and the cleaning of flooded houses, roads, and drainage in towns. Insecurity and violence by armed gangs and infrastructure damage in Port-au-Prince limit humanitarian access, both in the city and to other areas. Further rains in the coming days could aggravate the situation and cause further damage. (FloodList 05/06/2023, OCHA 05/06/2023, ECHO 06/06/2023)

03 May 2023

In 2023, approximately 5.3 million people – nearly half the population – will require humanitarian assistance in Haiti because of gang violence, drought, and political and economic instability. As at April, gang violence had left at least 1,400 people dead, 390 injured, and 395 kidnapped. The violence has internally displaced at least 128,000 people in Port-au-Prince. At least 4.9 million people are expected to experience Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse food insecurity levels until June. In Cité Soleil, Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity levels continue because of gang violence and insecurity cutting off humanitarian access and disrupting economic activity. Fighting and the presence of gangs have also constrained access to schools and hospitals. Inflation, taxation by the gangs, and drought affect food security and increase the prices of available food. Eight out of ten Haitians are cutting back on meals, with the situation likely to worsen. (USAID 03/05/2023, France24 09/05/2023, PI 04/05/2023)

current crises
in Haiti


These crises have been identified through the INFORM Severity Index, a tool for measuring and comparing the severity of humanitarian crises globally.

Read more about the Index

HTI001 - Complex crisis

Last updated 31/01/2024


Drivers

Earthquake
Violence
Socio-political
Other seasonal event

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

4.3 Very High

Access constraints

3.0

Analysis products
on Haiti

Haiti: returns from the Dominican Republic

03 November 2023

Haiti: returns from the Dominican Republic

DOCUMENT / PDF / 645 KB

The continued border closures and displacement from the Dominican Republic to Haiti will aggravate existing needs in Haiti, which is already experiencing a complex humanitarian emergency with increasing gang violence, high food insecurity levels, and a cholera outbreak.

DisplacementMixed migration
Haiti: a deep dive into the food security crisis

02 August 2023

Haiti: a deep dive into the food security crisis

DOCUMENT / PDF / 464 KB

Multiple political, social, and economic crises, coupled with natural hazards (such as earthquakes, droughts, and torrential rains), have progressively increased the number of people needing food assistance since 2020. This thematic report provides an overview of the severity of the food crisis in Haiti.

AudioFood security & livelihoods

Attached resources

Haiti: humanitarian impact of gang violence

02 June 2023

Haiti: humanitarian impact of gang violence

DOCUMENT / PDF / 728 KB

This report highlights the humanitarian impact of the recent increase in gang violence in Haiti. Since our last publication, while several other drivers have deteriorated, such as the cholera outbreak or the high cost of living, gang violence has further increased, worsening the severity of the insecurity and displacement crises. 

Conflict and violence

Attached resources

Haiti: deterioration of crises in Port-au-prince

01 November 2022

Haiti: deterioration of crises in Port-au-prince

DOCUMENT / PDF / 623 KB

Haiti is currently facing a deteriorating humanitarian situation. A combination of sociopolitical unrest and insecurity, fuel shortages, and a long-term declining economy has resulted in significant humanitarian needs for the population. 

Conflict and violenceEconomy
Haiti Earthquake: Department Profiles

21 August 2021

Haiti Earthquake: Department Profiles

DOCUMENT / PDF / 8 MB

This thematic report examines the impact of this crisis through the three profiles of the worst affected departments. It also analyses existing data on pre-crisis vulnerabilities and humanitarian access constraints at the departmental level.

Natural hazards
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