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Country analysis

DRC


A complex emergency has persisted in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for more than 20 years. Population displacement is frequent, with some people experiencing multiple displacement, mostly resulting from armed clashes between national and foreign armed forces, non-state armed groups, and/or self-defence groups. Intercommunal violence and floods also drive displacement.

As at December 2023, there were over 6.5 million IDPs across the country, mainly in Ituri, North Kivu, South Kivu, and Tanganyika provinces. Humanitarian needs are high, especially in the eastern provinces that are hosting about 81% of the IDPs. People recurrently face violence, food insecurity, flooding, and disease outbreaks. As at the end of 2023, over a million refugees from the DRC lived in African host countries. The DRC hosted over 523,000 refugees (mainly from Angola, Burundi, the Central African Republic, Congo, Rwanda, and South Sudan).

Since March 2022, 3.3 million people have been displaced across Ituri, North Kivu, and South Kivu provinces. Many displaced populations cannot return to their homes because of persisting violence, while their living conditions in the sites where they have spontaneously settled continue to deteriorate.

(OCHA 31/01/2024, IOM 30/10/2023, UNHCR accessed 06/02/2024 , VOA 30/10/2023)

A complex emergency has persisted in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for more than 20 years. Population displacement is frequent, with some people experiencing multiple displacement, mostly resulting from armed clashes between national and foreign armed forces, non-state armed groups, and/or self-defence groups. Intercommunal violence and floods also drive displacement.

As at December 2023, there were over 6.5 million IDPs across the country, mainly in Ituri, North Kivu, South Kivu, and Tanganyika provinces. Humanitarian needs are high, especially in the eastern provinces that are hosting about 81% of the IDPs. People recurrently face violence, food insecurity, flooding, and disease outbreaks. As at the end of 2023, over a million refugees from the DRC lived in African host countries. The DRC hosted over 523,000 refugees (mainly from Angola, Burundi, the Central African Republic, Congo, Rwanda, and South Sudan).

Since March 2022, 3.3 million people have been displaced across Ituri, North Kivu, and South Kivu provinces. Many displaced populations cannot return to their homes because of persisting violence, while their living conditions in the sites where they have spontaneously settled continue to deteriorate.

(OCHA 31/01/2024, IOM 30/10/2023, UNHCR accessed 06/02/2024 , VOA 30/10/2023)

Latest updates on country situation

14 May 2024

Heavy rains in April 2024 have led to Lake Tanganyika overflowing, increasing needs in South Kivu and Tanganyika provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo. By 8 May, flooding had affected about 471,000 people. 451,000 hectares of land, including 21,000 hectares of cropland, have also been inundated since early May. The affected people face the risk of diseases and need shelter, food, WASH, and health assistance. (WFP 08/05/2024, RFI 09/05/2024)

07 May 2024

On 3 April 2024, at least five rockets exploded in and around IDP camps located in the Goma-Sake region. The explosions killed at least 18 people, injured 32 others, and destroyed 26 temporary shelters and two water tanks. The recurrence of these incidents heightens the protection needs of civilians and is likely to further hamper humanitarian access in affected areas. (OCHA 06/05/2024, Forum ONGI RDC 06/05/2024)

16 April 2024

Between 11–13 April 2024, a series of attacks attributed to the Allied Democratic Forces killed 15 civilians in Beni city in North Kivu province. The perpetrators caused material damage, burnt motorcycles, and looted houses. These insecurity incidents may worsen the humanitarian conditions in Beni territory, where, as at 8 April, over 18,000 displaced people in Kamango health zone needed humanitarian assistance related to health, WASH, food, education, and protection. (La Prunelle RDC 14/04/2024, OCHA 08/04/2024)

28 March 2024

The deteriorated security situation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo since December 2023 has aggravated the humanitarian crisis in the region. Education is among the most affected sectors, with about 190 schools closed since the beginning of 2024. While some schools have been seized by armed groups, others are serving as shelter for displaced households, depriving over 270,000 children of education. (UN 27/03/2024, STC 28/03/2024)

26 March 2024

In 2024, the two-year conflict between the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the March 23 Movement has displaced over 1.3 million people in Masisi and Rutshuru territories, North Kivu, and continues to forcibly displace more. Finding shelter in neighbouring areas, IDPs are facing dire conditions according to authorities and local NGOs, with about 30,000 households recently displaced to Kanyabayonga, Lubero territory. On 25 March, ten IDPs were reported to have died in two weeks because of difficult living conditions, especially hunger and lack of medical care. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are in particular need of access to medical services in Kanyabayonga. About 76,000 children have also lost access to school as parents are unable to bear the fees. Such a situation exposes children to the risks of economic and sexual exploitation, as well as forced recruitment by armed groups. (Radio Okapi 26/03/2024, Fatshimetrie 26/03/2024, UNHCR 26/03/2024)

07 March 2024

In 2024, intensified displacement following violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has led to an increase in crimes against women and children. About 50 cases of sexual abuse are reported daily in camps around Goma. Poor hygiene facilities and shelter conditions, income loss, and high food insecurity expose women and girls to abuse. Over 49% of women engage in coping mechanisms with potentially harmful consequences. Outside the camps, they face the risk of sexual violence in their search for income opportunities and firewood. (WFP 07/03/2024, CARE 23/02/2024)

29 February 2024

In Goma, IDPs are facing dire humanitarian conditions in the displacement camps, where an additional 200,000 people have arrived since January 2024. Access to clean water has become a problem, especially for women who must walk about 25km to find water. Deteriorating WASH conditions in the camps risk a further increase in cholera cases, with 1,200 new cases recorded in February 2024. (KMP 29/02/2024, Oxfam 22/02/2024)

current crises
in DRC


These crises have been identified through the INFORM Severity Index, a tool for measuring and comparing the severity of humanitarian crises globally.

Read more about the Index

COD001 - Complex crisis

Last updated 26/04/2024


Drivers

Conflict
Displacement
Socio-political

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

4.1 Very High

Access constraints

4.0

Analysis products
on DRC

Democratic Republic of Congo: conflict in North Kivu

27 February 2024

Democratic Republic of Congo: conflict in North Kivu

DOCUMENT / PDF / 733 KB

From mid-January 2024, there has been a spike in fighting between the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) and the March 23 Movement (M23) in North Kivu province. 

Conflict and violence
DRC: analysis ecosystem (French)

20 December 2023

DRC: analysis ecosystem (French)

DOCUMENT / PDF / 500 KB

L’écosystème informationnel et analytique est composé d’une communauté d’acteurs qui participent ou contribuent à collecter, analyser et diffuser de l’information et des analyses concernant les crises et réponses humanitaires en RDC.

DRC: risk of violence in the upcoming general elections

18 December 2023

DRC: risk of violence in the upcoming general elections

DOCUMENT / PDF / 2 MB

This report presents a risk analysis of violence related to the general elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), set to take place on 20 December 2023. The report provides a brief of the current context and humanitarian situation in the country, maps out factors that could lead to violence during or after the electoral period (triggers), and identifies the potential humanitarian impacts of such violence (hazard).

Conflict and violence
Tanzania: Refugee influx from the Democratic Republic of Congo

30 March 2023

Tanzania: Refugee influx from the Democratic Republic of Congo

DOCUMENT / PDF / 268 KB

More than 2,600 refugees and asylum seekers from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) entered Tanzania between 5–14 March to flee from the escalation of clashes between the March 23 Movement (M23) and the Congolese army in Kivu region. The immediate needs reported are food, WASH, shelter, and healthcare. 

Mixed migration
DRC: impact of intercommunal violence and displacement

21 December 2022

DRC: impact of intercommunal violence and displacement

DOCUMENT / PDF / 2 MB

Clashes between the Teke and Yaka communities over a land dispute have displaced more than 48,000 people in Kwango, Kwilu, and Mai-Ndombe provinces since 24 July. More than 180 people have died since the violence began. 

Conflict and violenceDisplacement
View more