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Country analysis

Djibouti


Climate shocks, including droughts and flash floods, have resulted in rising levels of malnutrition, displacement, and food insecurity, as well as recurring disease outbreaks. Most of the severely food-insecure people are in Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Obock, and Tadjourah regions, which are affected by the drought.

Aside from climate shocks, one of the main drivers of food insecurity is the country’s dependence on imports for 90% of its food needs, making it highly vulnerable to the fluctuations of international market prices. High levels of unemployment and widespread poverty cause further humanitarian needs. Around 40% of the active population is unemployed. The country’s poverty rate is 79%, with 42% of the population living in extreme poverty.

Djibouti is a major migration route in the Horn of Africa, with 400 600 migrants crossing the country daily on their way to the Arabian Peninsula. In August 2022, 19,163 movements were recorded, indicating a daily average of 618 movements. Nearly 30,000 refugees and asylum seekers live in the country. Themajority (13,000) are from Somalia, along with about 17,000 from Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Yemen.

Aside from socioeconomic reasons and the more typical seasonal factors, their reasons for fleeing include interrelated problems, such as continuous insecurity and violence, extreme climate conditions, and public health emergencies.

(IPC 04/05/2022, IFRC 10/03/2023, UNHCR 13/03/2023, WFP 08/2019, WB 01/10/2059)

Climate shocks, including droughts and flash floods, have resulted in rising levels of malnutrition, displacement, and food insecurity, as well as recurring disease outbreaks. Most of the severely food-insecure people are in Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Obock, and Tadjourah regions, which are affected by the drought.

Aside from climate shocks, one of the main drivers of food insecurity is the country’s dependence on imports for 90% of its food needs, making it highly vulnerable to the fluctuations of international market prices. High levels of unemployment and widespread poverty cause further humanitarian needs. Around 40% of the active population is unemployed. The country’s poverty rate is 79%, with 42% of the population living in extreme poverty.

Djibouti is a major migration route in the Horn of Africa, with 400 600 migrants crossing the country daily on their way to the Arabian Peninsula. In August 2022, 19,163 movements were recorded, indicating a daily average of 618 movements. Nearly 30,000 refugees and asylum seekers live in the country. Themajority (13,000) are from Somalia, along with about 17,000 from Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Yemen.

Aside from socioeconomic reasons and the more typical seasonal factors, their reasons for fleeing include interrelated problems, such as continuous insecurity and violence, extreme climate conditions, and public health emergencies.

(IPC 04/05/2022, IFRC 10/03/2023, UNHCR 13/03/2023, WFP 08/2019, WB 01/10/2059)

Latest updates on country situation

25 July 2023

From July–December 2023, 285,000 people (24% of those analysed) are expected to face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse acute food insecurity levels – a 33% increase from the same period in 2022. Low purchasing power and limited livelihood opportunities result in poor diet in rural areas, affecting even refugees. (IPC 02/06/2023, IPC 04/05/2022)

02 June 2023

Between March–June 2023, an estimated 250,000 people (21% of the population analysed) will face high food insecurity levels – i.e. Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse. This includes 86,000 people (7% of the population) facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity. These figures indicate a 47% increase in highly food-insecure people compared to the same period in 2022. The crisis will hit rural regions the hardest, with the high prevalence of food insecurity in these regions resulting from various factors, such as insufficient diets, low purchasing power, and restricted income-generating opportunities. From January–December 2023, more than 33,000 cases of acute malnutrition are expected among children between 6–59 months old, as well as 2,900 cases affecting pregnant and lactating women. Among the affected children, over 5,500 cases are anticipated to suffer from severe acute malnutrition. Those affected will need food, nutrition, shelter, health, and WASH services. (IPC 02/06/2023, IPC 04/05/2022)

current crises
in Djibouti


These crises have been identified through the INFORM Severity Index, a tool for measuring and comparing the severity of humanitarian crises globally.

Read more about the Index

DJI001 - Country level

Last updated 31/01/2024


Drivers

Displacement
Drought

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.9 Medium

Access constraints

1.0

DJI002 - Mixed Migration

Last updated 31/01/2024


Drivers

Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

1.2 Low

Access constraints

1.0

DJI003 - Drought

Last updated 31/01/2024


Drivers

Drought

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.8 Medium

Access constraints

1.0

Analysis products
on Djibouti

Djibouti: Drought

10 March 2023

Djibouti: Drought

DOCUMENT / PDF / 781 KB

In Djibouti, drought is affecting around 200,000 people. The current drought started in 2020 and has continued with five below-average rainy seasons. As at October 2022,  about 72,000 people, including 29,000 children, were in need of humanitarian assistance as a result of the drought. The crisis has displaced approximately 6,000 people.

Natural hazards

Attached resources

Djibouti: Tropical Cyclone Sagar

22 May 2018

Djibouti: Tropical Cyclone Sagar

DOCUMENT / PDF / 322 KB

A tropical cyclone developed on 16 May in the Gulf of Aden, between Yemen and Somalia, known as Cyclone Sagar. It hit Djibouti on 19 May causing heavy rains and flash floods. The areas most affected by flash floods are Djibouti City and the suburb of Balbala. 25-50,000 people have been affected by flash floods and likely displaced.

Natural hazards
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