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Country analysis

Cameroon


Cameroon has been experiencing an interplay of protracted crisis situations that continues to define political, economic, and social developments in the country. Long-standing grievances in the anglophone community in Northwest and Southwest regions, following decades of the marginalisation of the minority English-speaking regions by the francophone-dominated Government, escalated into widespread protests and strikes in late 2016.

This has resulted in the emergence of different separatist groups clamouring for the creation of a self-proclaimed Ambazonian Republic in Northwest and Southwest. Clashes between the military and separatist forces have intensified insecurity in the regions, leaving over 626,000 people internally displaced and about 87,000 seeking refuge in neighbouring Nigeria as at February 2023.

Boko Haram’s insurgency in Nigeria’s northeast has also spilled over into Cameroon’s Far North region, mainly as a result of the proximity and porosity of borders between the two countries. After Nigeria, Cameroon is the country second most affected by the violence and insecurity linked to Boko Haram in Lake Chad Basin. More than 124,000 Nigerian refugees have fled to Cameroon’s Far North, while violence by Boko Haram and the Islamic State in West Africa Province has also internally displaced more than 357,000 people in the same area.

As at November 2022, Cameroon was also hosting over 355,000 refugees from the Central African Republic who had fled their country mainly as a result of conflict. These refugees were predominantly located in Adamaoua, Est, and Nord regions.

(OCHA accessed 20/02/2023, Journal of International Humanitarian Action 24/01/2022, IFRI 06/2022, UNHCR 12/01/2023, UNHCR 13/12/2022)

Cameroon has been experiencing an interplay of protracted crisis situations that continues to define political, economic, and social developments in the country. Long-standing grievances in the anglophone community in Northwest and Southwest regions, following decades of the marginalisation of the minority English-speaking regions by the francophone-dominated Government, escalated into widespread protests and strikes in late 2016.

This has resulted in the emergence of different separatist groups clamouring for the creation of a self-proclaimed Ambazonian Republic in Northwest and Southwest. Clashes between the military and separatist forces have intensified insecurity in the regions, leaving over 626,000 people internally displaced and about 87,000 seeking refuge in neighbouring Nigeria as at February 2023.

Boko Haram’s insurgency in Nigeria’s northeast has also spilled over into Cameroon’s Far North region, mainly as a result of the proximity and porosity of borders between the two countries. After Nigeria, Cameroon is the country second most affected by the violence and insecurity linked to Boko Haram in Lake Chad Basin. More than 124,000 Nigerian refugees have fled to Cameroon’s Far North, while violence by Boko Haram and the Islamic State in West Africa Province has also internally displaced more than 357,000 people in the same area.

As at November 2022, Cameroon was also hosting over 355,000 refugees from the Central African Republic who had fled their country mainly as a result of conflict. These refugees were predominantly located in Adamaoua, Est, and Nord regions.

(OCHA accessed 20/02/2023, Journal of International Humanitarian Action 24/01/2022, IFRI 06/2022, UNHCR 12/01/2023, UNHCR 13/12/2022)

current crises
in Cameroon


These crises have been identified through the INFORM Severity Index, a tool for measuring and comparing the severity of humanitarian crises globally.

Read more about the Index

CMR001 - Country level

Last updated 30/11/2023


Drivers

Conflict
Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

4.1 Very High

Access constraints

4.0

CMR002 - Lake Chad basin crisis

Last updated 30/11/2023


Drivers

Conflict

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

3.6 High

Access constraints

3.0

CMR003 - Anglophone crisis

Last updated 30/11/2023


Drivers

Conflict

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

3.5 High

Access constraints

4.0

CMR004 - CAR refugees

Last updated 30/11/2023


Drivers

Conflict
Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.8 Medium

Access constraints

2.0

REG001 - Lake Chad basin regional crisis

Last updated 30/11/2023


Drivers


Crisis level

Regional

Severity level

4.4 Very High

Access constraints

5.0

Analysis products
on Cameroon

Cameroon: Increase in cholera cases

29 June 2023

Cameroon: Increase in cholera cases

DOCUMENT / PDF / 204 KB

Cameroon has been experiencing a cholera outbreak since October 2021. Although the number of reported cases was relatively low between late November 2022 and March 2023, there has been a significant increase since 27 March, particularly in Centre region, making it the new epicentre of the epidemic. The epidemic has since mostly affected Centre, Littoral, South, and West regions, with new cases reported in 29 out of 58 districts countrywide.

Health
Lake Chad Basin: Impact of extreme weather & climate events on food security

17 August 2022

Lake Chad Basin: Impact of extreme weather & climate events on food security

DOCUMENT / PDF / 1 MB

This report aims to explore the impact of extreme weather and climate events on the humanitarian situation in the Lake Chad Basin. Since the 1970s in West and Central Africa, river floods and agricultural and ecological droughts have been increasing while average rainfall has been decreasing. These phenomena have an impact on availability of resources and land, and consequently on the economic and living conditions of the regions’ populations.

Food security & livelihoodsNatural hazards
Cameroon: Education crisis in North West and South West regions

19 February 2021

Cameroon: Education crisis in North West and South West regions

DOCUMENT / PDF / 2 MB

This report consolidates information from a wide range of available secondary data sources on the Anglophone crisis in Cameroon, including UN agencies, NGOs, the World Bank, media, and key informant interviews conducted in November 2020 and February 2021. Prior to publication, the report was shared with external partners working in Cameroon to cross-check information. 

Natural hazards
Cameroon: COVID-19 outbreak

30 March 2020

Cameroon: COVID-19 outbreak

DOCUMENT / PDF / 389 KB

Cameroon has 54 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Central Region, Littoral Region and West Region as of 23 March 2020. Cameroon’s Ministry of Public Health has developed a preparedness plan for COVID-19, including active surveillance at points of entry, in-country diagnostic capacity at the national reference laboratory, and designated isolation and treatment centres. 

COVID-19
Cameroon: Escalation of the Anglophone crisis

21 January 2020

Cameroon: Escalation of the Anglophone crisis

DOCUMENT / PDF / 380 KB

Parliamentary and municipal elections scheduled for 9 February 2020 are intensifying an escalation of the Anglophone crisis in Cameroon. On 7 January 2020, fighters from the Ambazonian separatist group burned down the Elections Cameroon office in Misaje commune, Donga Mantung division in Northwest region. The action was to reiterate their earlier decision not to participate in legislative and municipal council elections scheduled for 9 February 2020.

Conflict and violence
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