Skip to main content

Country analysis

Brazil


As at August 2023, Brazil hosted around 501,000 Venezuelan refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers. The main ports of entry are the states near the northern border region.

The high flow of population movements in Roraima makes accommodation the main need. Although Venezuelans can move from Roraima to other states, geographical barriers, such as natural hazards in the Amazon Rainforest, make it difficult for them to do so. The scarcity of formal jobs and language limitations also hinder their access to essential goods and services. Access to food, education, and protection are among their most urgent humanitarian needs.

Northwestern states experience wet weather and heavy rainfall during the rainy season, usually between October–March, which make them prone to flooding. Extratropical cyclones and heavy rain have been affecting states such as Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul since September, resulting in displacement and the need for shelter, clean water, and food.

As at the end of November, the drought had affected about 600,000 people in the state of Amazonas, which declared an emergency in 59 of 62 municipalities on 19 October.

(R4V 02/12/2023, OCHA 11/09/2023, PAHO 31/10/2023, UNICEF 22/11/2023)

As at August 2023, Brazil hosted around 501,000 Venezuelan refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers. The main ports of entry are the states near the northern border region.

The high flow of population movements in Roraima makes accommodation the main need. Although Venezuelans can move from Roraima to other states, geographical barriers, such as natural hazards in the Amazon Rainforest, make it difficult for them to do so. The scarcity of formal jobs and language limitations also hinder their access to essential goods and services. Access to food, education, and protection are among their most urgent humanitarian needs.

Northwestern states experience wet weather and heavy rainfall during the rainy season, usually between October–March, which make them prone to flooding. Extratropical cyclones and heavy rain have been affecting states such as Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul since September, resulting in displacement and the need for shelter, clean water, and food.

As at the end of November, the drought had affected about 600,000 people in the state of Amazonas, which declared an emergency in 59 of 62 municipalities on 19 October.

(R4V 02/12/2023, OCHA 11/09/2023, PAHO 31/10/2023, UNICEF 22/11/2023)

Latest updates on country situation

07 May 2024

Since 27 April 2024, record rainfall linked to El Niño has caused unprecedented flooding in Brazil's southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, killing at least 95 people by 7 May. The flooding displaced 208,000 people and affected at least 1.5 million across the state. Floods had also deprived more than 1.4 million people of electricity and cut off telecommunications in 48 cities. The inundation of roads has isolated some towns and disrupted transportation. The flooding has also affected the states of Parana and Santa Catarina, increasing the number of casualties. More rainfall is expected in the coming days. The full impact of the floods is still unknown, but those affected are likely to need food, shelter, and WASH assistance. (WMO 06/05/2024, ECHO 08/05/2024, The Guardian 06/05/2024)

08 April 2024

As at 3 April 2024, heavy rainfall in the northeastern state of Maranhão had displaced at least 2,300 people. As a result, at least 13 municipalities had declared a state of emergency. Maranhão faced the same consequences from heavy rains around the same period in 2023, with 7,000 people left homeless and 35,000 families affected. (ERCC accessed 09/04/2024, PAHO 03/04/2024, The Brazilian Report 25/04/2023)

08 February 2024

In 2024, the states of Acre, Goias, and Minas Gerais and the Federal District of Brazil have declared a state of emergency in response to rising cases of dengue fever. The city of Rio de Janeiro has reported 10,000 cases alone, nearly half of all the cases reported in 2023. Although Brazil has tackled the situation by opening new healthcare facilities and spraying areas with high concentrations of mosquitoes, the communities residing far from major cities, the communities residing far from major cities could require humanitarian assistance in the form of WASH and medical services. (AP 08/02/2024, Expansion 07/02/2023, Reuters 08/02/2024)

22 November 2023

Drought is currently affecting an estimated 600,000 people in Amazonas state. As at 30 October 2023, 60 of the 62 municipalities in the state had been declared to be facing emergency drought levels. The drought is driven by El Niño, combined with deforestation and the above-average warming of the water in the northern Atlantic Ocean. As a result, the water levels in the Rio Negro River are the lowest in 120 years, affecting people’s access to services, including food, healthcare, and education. The affected population are left isolated, driving displacement, as the people often use the river to transport basic food and medicine, as well as passengers to where there are available services, such as schools and health facilities. About 12,300 people (3,000 families) are displaced and staying in emergency shelters. Clean drinking water is needed, as wells have dried up and water pumps are not functioning. (UNICEF 25/10/2023, PAHO 31/10/2023, Nature 14/11/2023)

29 October 2023

Heavy rainfall since 3 October 2023 has been affecting 138 municipalities in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The rains have killed at least two people and displaced 26,500, mostly from Blumenau, Lontras, Rio do Sul, and Tubarao municipalities. Displaced people likely need shelter, clean water, and food. (ECHO 12/10/2023, ECHO 19/10/2023)

19 September 2023

An extratropical cyclone, with heavy rainfall, strong winds, and hailstorms, have affected at least 354,000 people in Brazil. The cyclone has mainly affected southern Brazil, specifically Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states, since 4 September. As at 14 September, there were nearly 50 dead, 940 injured, and over 25,000 displaced people recorded. Increased river water levels have restricted access to the affected areas from Porto Alegre city, limiting aid delivery. Some areas are isolated in Rio Grande do Sul, which has experienced the passage of four cyclones since June 2023. The weather event has likely affected agriculture and the livelihoods of those working in the sector. Assessments of the needs of the affected population have not been conducted, but they are likely to include shelter, clean water, and food.
(PAHO 15/09/2023, OCHA 11/09/2023, Clarin 05/09/2023)

current crises
in Brazil


These crises have been identified through the INFORM Severity Index, a tool for measuring and comparing the severity of humanitarian crises globally.

Read more about the Index

BRA004 - Drought in the Amazonas

Last updated 31/03/2024


Drivers

Drought

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.3 Medium

Access constraints

0.0

BRA001 - Country level

Last updated 31/03/2024


Drivers

Displacement
Floods

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.3 Medium

Access constraints

0.0

BRA002 - Venezuelan refugees

Last updated 30/04/2024


Drivers

Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.3 Medium

Access constraints

1.0

REG002 - Venezuela Regional Crisis

Last updated 28/11/2023


Drivers


Crisis level

Regional

Severity level

3.9 High

Access constraints

4.0

Analysis products
on Brazil

Brazil: floods in Rio Grande do Sul

14 May 2024

Brazil: floods in Rio Grande do Sul

DOCUMENT / PDF / 849 KB

Since 27 April, the southern Brazilian states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina have been affected by heavy rains. As at 12 May, at least 143 people had died, 806 were injured, 130 were still missing, and almost 54,000 had been displaced.

Natural hazards
Brazil: Floods in Bahia and Minas Gerais

04 February 2022

Brazil: Floods in Bahia and Minas Gerais

DOCUMENT / PDF / 510 KB

Because of a meteorological phenomenon known as the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, the Brazilian states of Bahia and Minas Gerais have been experiencing heavy rainfall since early December. The rains have caused flooding in 164 municipalities in Bahia and 341 in Minas Gerais. As at 25 January, more than 965,000 people in both states are affected. 

Natural hazards
Brazil: Floods in Pernambuco and Alagoas

08 June 2017

Brazil: Floods in Pernambuco and Alagoas

DOCUMENT / PDF / 126 KB

In the last week of May, heavy rainfall and flooding were registered across the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas in northern Brazil. In Pernambuco, 24 out of 185 municipalities have declared state of emergency: 55,000 have been displaced and up to 2.2 million temporarily affected by damage to WASH infrastructure. In Alagoas, the highest estimates are of 16,000 people displaced and 27 out of 102 municipalities in state of emergency.

Natural hazards
Latina America and Caribbean: Zika Virus Epidemic

18 March 2016

Latina America and Caribbean: Zika Virus Epidemic

DOCUMENT / PDF / 166 KB

The Zika virus epidemic in Latin America and the Caribbean is most affecting Brazil, with over one million cases estimated. Colombia reports over 18,000 confirmed and 2,000 suspected cases and anticipates over 650,000. El Salvador reports over 6,000 suspected cases. Venezuela reports over 4,500 confirmed cases, however unofficial estimates are thought to be as high as 400,000. 

Health
View more