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Country analysis

Algeria


Algeria's geographical location at the intersection of sub-Saharan Arica and Europe makes it a transit country for migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers. It is also increasingly becoming a country of origin and destination.

Undocumented migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers heading to Algeria as a destination or transiting through it are mostly from sub-Saharan Africa. Many remain in Algeria when they fail to reach Europe. They mostly arrive in southern Algeria via Niger and Mali and then move north towards Algeria's coastal cities, where they then travel along the Central and Western Mediterranean routes.

There were at least 173,600 Sahrawi refugees in Algeria as at November 2023. They have been hosted in five refugee camps near Tindouf in southwestern Algeria since 1975. 90% are estimated to be either food-insecure or vulnerable to food insecurity, and they are dependent on humanitarian aid for their livelihoods.

Sahrawi refugees face harsh desert conditions and rely almost fully on humanitarian assistance to meet their basic needs. Air temperature exceeds 40° C in summer, reaching highs of 50° C and lows of 10° C in winter. These weather conditions result in poor agricultural production, livestock deaths, and increased needs for water and shelter. (MMC 25/10/2023, IFPRI/WFP 18/07/2023, UNHCR 11/05/2023, Weather & Climate accessed 04/02/2024, UN 21/11/2023)

Algeria's geographical location at the intersection of sub-Saharan Arica and Europe makes it a transit country for migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers. It is also increasingly becoming a country of origin and destination.

Undocumented migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers heading to Algeria as a destination or transiting through it are mostly from sub-Saharan Africa. Many remain in Algeria when they fail to reach Europe. They mostly arrive in southern Algeria via Niger and Mali and then move north towards Algeria's coastal cities, where they then travel along the Central and Western Mediterranean routes.

There were at least 173,600 Sahrawi refugees in Algeria as at November 2023. They have been hosted in five refugee camps near Tindouf in southwestern Algeria since 1975. 90% are estimated to be either food-insecure or vulnerable to food insecurity, and they are dependent on humanitarian aid for their livelihoods.

Sahrawi refugees face harsh desert conditions and rely almost fully on humanitarian assistance to meet their basic needs. Air temperature exceeds 40° C in summer, reaching highs of 50° C and lows of 10° C in winter. These weather conditions result in poor agricultural production, livestock deaths, and increased needs for water and shelter. (MMC 25/10/2023, IFPRI/WFP 18/07/2023, UNHCR 11/05/2023, Weather & Climate accessed 04/02/2024, UN 21/11/2023)

Latest updates on country situation

07 August 2023

A series of wildfires since 24 July 2023 have affected over 30,000 people (6,000 households). About 35 wildfires have affected 11 regions in the northeastern parts of the country, killing at least 34 people and injuring 700. The most affected provinces are Bejaïa, Bouira, Boumerdes, Jijel, Skikda, and Tizi Ouzou. The fire has also severely affected livestock and crops, affecting people’s livelihoods and income. The smoke and ash from the fire have led to poor air quality and health problems. The Government has provided tents, water, and other assistance to the displaced people, but many still need shelter, WASH, and healthcare services besides livelihoods assistance. Extreme heat (temperatures reaching 45–50° C), increasing wind speed, and low humidity are contributing to the spread of the fires. (IFRC 07/08/2023, Phys.org 24/07/2023, Sky News Arabia 25/07/2023)

current crises
in Algeria


These crises have been identified through the INFORM Severity Index, a tool for measuring and comparing the severity of humanitarian crises globally.

Read more about the Index

DZA002 - Mixed Migration

Last updated 31/05/2024


Drivers

Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.7 Medium

Access constraints

1.0

DZA003 - Sahrawi refugees

Last updated 31/05/2024


Drivers

Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.2 Medium

Access constraints

2.0

DZA004 - Country level

Last updated 31/05/2024


Drivers

Displacement

Crisis level

Country

Severity level

2.7 Medium

Access constraints

2.0

REG007 - Central Mediterranean Route

Last updated 30/05/2024


Drivers


Crisis level

Regional

Severity level

3 Medium

Access constraints

3.0

REG008 - Western Mediterranean Route

Last updated 30/05/2024


Drivers


Crisis level

Regional

Severity level

2.6 Medium

Access constraints

1.0

Analysis products
on Algeria

Algeria: Sahrawi refugees in Tindouf

19 January 2022

Algeria: Sahrawi refugees in Tindouf

DOCUMENT / PDF / 604 KB

This report aims to increase awareness about the situation of Sahrawi refugees, compile available information on their needs and the corresponding humanitarian response, and highlight existing gaps to improve the level of information available to responders and other decision makers.

Conflict and violenceDisplacementProtection
Migration in West and North Africa

30 November 2018

Migration in West and North Africa

DOCUMENT / PDF / 855 KB

These scenarios consider how migration dynamics within and via West and North Africa (including across the Mediterranean Sea) might evolve in the first half of 2019 and the potential humanitarian consequences. The aim is to support strategic planning, create awareness and promote preparedness activities for policymakers and other actors working on migration.

Mixed migration
View more