• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 4,041,000 People displaced [?]
  • 53 Fatalities reported [?]
  • 738,000 Severe humanitarian conditions - Level 4 [?]



Turkey is an important country of transit and destination for refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants. The country hosts almost 4 million people seeking international protection – approximately 3.63 million refugees from Syria, and over 330,000 non-Syrian refugees and asylum seekers, most notably Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Somalia. ?Despite humanitarian response efforts, refugees, asylum seekers and migrants in Turkey have humanitarian needs across a number of sectors. Among the Syrian refugee population, 64% of households are estimated to live below the poverty line, and approximately 400,000 children are out of school.  ?Non-Syrians often face particular difficulties obtaining an official status, accessing social services, and pursuing sustainable livelihood activities. ?

The number of refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers passing through Turkey to Europe has decreased since the height of the European Migrant Crisis in 2015, though the route remains significant. Thousands of people continue to cross to Europe via Turkey’s land borders with Greece and Bulgaria, as well as by sea. Between January and December 2019, Greece recorded more than 67,000 new arrivals, almost all of whom had departed from Turkey’s western coast. ?


Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team. 

Humanitarian Access



Humanitarian access in Turkey has remained stable, although COVID-19 restrictions have created new barriers. A lack of proper documentation and official refugee status bars many people from receiving humanitarian assistance. Contact tracing measures in administrative buildings and transport services require official documentation. As a result of the lengthy pro-cess required for refugees to obtain a work permit, some engage in informal labour, which puts them at a high risk of deportation if caught. Voluntary repatriation agreements signed by deception or coercion have also been reported. Humanitarian movement is limited in southern provinces affected by the Kurdish conflict, where access to the affected population is only possible for registered organisations.

Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.