• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 4,094,000 People displaced [?]
  • 13 Fatalities reported [?]
  • 744,000 Severe humanitarian conditions - Level 4 [?]



Turkey is an important country of transit and destination for refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants. The country hosts about four million people seeking international protection. Over 3,735,000 registered Syrian refugees were present in Turkey as at January 2022. Turkey also hosted over 29,000 refugees and asylum seekers mainly from Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq as at January 2022. There were over 1,320,000 foreign nationals with residency permits as at January 2022. ? 

Despite humanitarian response, refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants in Turkey have humanitarian needs across a number of sectors. The June 2021 Inter-Agency Protection Sector Needs Assessment found that among the Syrian refugee population, 69% of responders are struggling to meet food costs, 65% are struggling to meet rent or housing costs, and 39% are struggling to meet utilities costs. Syrian refugees are coping by reducing food expenses or borrowing money from friends or family.? Migrants are also vulnerable to human trafficking and are likely to be at risk of push back by the Turkish coast guard.? 

The number of refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers passing through Turkey to Europe has decreased since the height of the European Migrant Crisis in 2015, but the route remains significant. Thousands of people continue to cross to Europe via Turkey’s land borders with Greece and Bulgaria, as well as by sea.? COVID-19 containment measures, such as movement restrictions, have reduced the numbers of people attempting to cross to Europe.?

Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team. 

Humanitarian Access



Humanitarian access in Turkey has remained constrained in the past six months. Refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants face difficulties in gaining access to services and assistance. Without official documentation, refugees cannot access essential services such as healthcare. Undocumented migrants and refugees are also at risk of detention and deportation. There are considerable delays in the registration process, particularly in applications for international protection.

The registration process for aid organisations is considered complex and time-consuming. Humanitarian agencies face interference by the Government in the implementation of humanitarian activities: government-appointed trustees closely monitor humanitarian organisations, and any efforts to raise funds from donors need government approval. Access of aid organisations to people in need in the Kurdish region is limited because of checkpoints, active fighting, and movement restrictions.

The presence of explosive remnants of war and mine contamination, especially in the east near the borders with Armenia, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, creates a hazardous environment for accessing and delivering humanitarian assistance.

Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.