Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)1.80 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.60 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.1.20 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.00 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
As at 15 December 2020, there were approximately 24,000 Venezuelan migrants and refugees registered with the Government or humanitarian organisations in Trinidad and Tobago. The projection for 2021 varies from 31,000 to 40,000 Venezuelans in the country, depending on the source. Numbers are unclear, given that many Venezuelans enter the country by irregular means and are not registered in the Government’s databases. These estimated numbers represent the highest per capita population of Venezuelans in the Caribbean, as the islands have a total population of 1.3 million people.?
Public entities in Trinidad and Tobago have announced a lack of budget to provide shelter for all Venezuelan migrants and refugees. This, combined with limited regularisation plans and the economic impact of COVID-19, has led to many Venezuelans being unemployed and evicted from their homes.?As a result, in July 2021, more than 700 Venezuelan migrants returned to their country on a trip arranged by the Venezuelan Government.?
Manifestations of xenophobia continued throughout 2020 and 2021, as migrants were blamed for COVID-19 infections.?The routes used by migrants to reach Trinidad and Tobago expose them to protection risks, as some boats have shipwrecked on the way to the islands.? In addition, Venezuelan migrants have denounced cases of sex and human trafficking and child labour during their journey and after arrival.?
On 9 April 2021, a one-month registration period for irregular migrants in Trinidad and Tobago ended. Several thousand Venezuelans were unable to register, as the service was only available to migrants who had registered during the migrant registration process in 2019. Since 17 June 2019, Venezuelan nationals need a visa to enter Trinidad and Tobago. This requirement is a barrier to entry that may lead migrants to seek unsafe, informal routes into the country.
No recent significant humanitarian developments. This country is being monitored by our analysis team.
Entry requirements and legal status
On 9 April 2021, a one-month registration period for irregular migrants in Trinidad and Tobago ended. Several thousand Venezuelans were unable to register, as registration was only available to migrants who had registered during the migrant registration process in 2019. Since 17 June 2019, Venezuelan nationals require a visa to enter Trinidad and Tobago. This requirement is a barrier to entry that may lead migrants to seek unsafe, informal routes into the country. ?
Venezuelan refugees and asylum seekers are at an increased state of vulnerability during the COVID-19 pandemic. Following government directives non-essential workers must stay home, and bars, restaurants, and all food vendors are closed, particularly affecting Venezuelan workers. The loss of income has led to reduced ability to meet basic needs and eviction has become a serious threat.
As social assistance remains inadequate for Venezuelans in the country, there is a concern that some may resort to negative coping mechanisms. The indefinite closure of borders also leaves refugees and asylum seekers without the option to return home, placing them at increased risk. Cash-based intervention and food assistance is being provided by different humanitarian actors. Ensuring access to education after the closure of schools remains a challenge.?
Livelihoods: Refugees, asylum-seekers and irregular migrants do not generally have the right to work and are therefore pushed into the informal sector where they are exposed to risks of abuse and exploitation. ?
Food and nutrition: Limited access to livelihood opportunities hampers access to sufficient food and nutrition.
Education: As overall access to services and protection is severely limited for Venezuelans, this also takes a toll on access to formal education. 75% of Venezuelan children living in Trinidad and Tobago for more than a year did not have access to formal education.?