• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints



A long-running insurgency, large refugee population, and high risk of natural disasters contribute to humanitarian needs across Thailand.

In the southern provinces of Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat, a Malay-Muslim insurgency has occurred since the 1940s, with escalations occurring in 2004 and again in 2019. Attacks on civilian areas, including markets and schools, and military offensives in the region have resulted in 7,000 fatalities since 2004.?

More than 93,000 refugees are hosted along the Thailand-Myanmar border. Many of them fled conflict and persecution in Thailand in the 1980s. They face extreme restrictions on movement, legal protection, and are dependent on humanitarian assistance.?

Insurgent activities in the south and the anti-insurgency campaign, as well as restrictions on refugee movements all pose protection risks. Suspected insurgents are faced with arbitrary detention and use of force by authorities. Myanmar refugees caught leaving the camps are at risk of detention and even deportation.?

Thailand also has a high vulnerability to natural hazards including floods, monsoons, and extreme heat. In 2020, the country experienced its worst drought in decades, which has a direct impact on food security and livelihoods for Thailand’s agricultural workers.?

The INFORM Index rates Thailand’s risk of humanitarian disaster as 4.1/10.?

Latest Developments


Since 4 January, Songkhla, Yala, Narathiwat and Pattani provinces in the south of Thailand are affected by flooding due to heavy rainfall. 186,000 people are affected, with nearly 400 displaced. Needs are unclear.?

Key Priorities


Protection: Armed conflict and attacks on civilians in the southern provinces pose a significant threat to civilians. Nearly half of refugees living in Thai camps are children born in the camps who lack birth certificates, effectively making them stateless. Refugees travelling outside the camps risk arrest or deportation, given their lack of legal documentation and restrictions on movement.?

Health: Psychological trauma and protracted displacement have a severe impact on the refugee population. The prospect of an uncertain future, inability to return to Myanmar, and dependence on humanitarian assistance, which has been cut in recent years, has contributed to extremely high rates of depression and suicide in the camps.?

Information Gaps and Needs


Data gaps in the southern provinces most affected by conflict poses a challenge for determining the severity of the conflict or the humanitarian impact felt by the affected population.