• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 247,000 People displaced [?]
  • 247,000 People in Need [?]



Tanzania is hosting about 247,000 refugees and asylum seekers from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Political violence in Burundi and DRC and the insecurity it sparks are the major drivers of displacement into Tanzania. Refugees are accommodated in the Mtendeli, Nduta, and Nyarugusu camps in the northwest of Tanzania. A small population is also hosted in urban centres – mainly in Dar es Salaam, the capital city of Tanzania.?

Because of the protracted refugee situation, the closure of all border entry points for Burundians and Congolese asylum seekers since July 2018, and chronic underfunding of humanitarian operations, the refugee population in Tanzania remains highly dependent on humanitarian assistance. Nearly half of the refugees and asylum seekers across the three camps live in overcrowded emergency shelters and tents that lack adequate child-friendly spaces, increasing the risk of protection concerns, including sexual and gender-based violence. ?

As tensions ease in Burundi, more refugees choose to voluntarily return to their country. Since 2017, the Government of Tanzania has agreed to initiate a voluntary repatriation programme with UNHCR. In 2020, over 30,600 refugees returned to Burundi. Congolese refugees show little interest in voluntary repatriation because of the unstable situation and political tension in DRC. ?

Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.



Shelter: Refugees live in emergency shelters and tents and face harsh weather conditions, increasing health risks and exhausting the response capacity of the health sector. Nearly 80% of refugees living in overcrowded camps are women and children. ?

Health: Providing comprehensive and primary health services for refugees in camps is challenged by the lack of specialised equipment and well-equipped ambulances in healthcare centres. Some regions that host refugees (Mwanza, Kagera, and Kigoma) are identified as high-risk areas for Ebola disease.?

WASH: Needs for WASH services are high in all refugee camps. In 2021, nearly half of Burundian refugees used shared latrines, while hygiene and dignity kits and soap were among key needs for Congolese refugees, especially as part of the implementation of COVID-19 measures.?

Protection: Staying in overcrowded shelters increases the risk of sexual and gender-based violence for women and girls. The lack of child-friendly spaces and foster care support exposes children to forced early marriages, child labour, neglect, exploitation, and abuse.?