At the beginning of October Russian defense officials and representatives of Syrian opposition groups renewed a ceasefire initially agreed upon in northern Homs governorate at the end of July.? On 15 September, Iran, Russia, and Turkey agreed on the final de-escalation zones in Syria. The zones will include, fully or partly, Eastern Ghouta and the provinces of Idlib, Homs, Latakia, Aleppo, and Hama.? On 9 July, the US and Russia brokered a ceasefire in southern Syria.? A truce, brokered by Russia and Turkey, has been in place between the government and opposition armed groups since 30 December 2016. The truce excluded armed groups IS, Jabhat Fateh al-Sham, and the YPG-led SDF, and fighting in areas controlled by those groups has not decreased.? Despite local violations, there has been a general decrease in violence in the areas where all stakeholders are included in the truce.?
Aleppo: Pro-government forces drove IS out of the governorate at the end of June.? Tensions are rising between the SDF and pro-Turkish forces in northern Aleppo governorate and between the governmental forces and HTS in the southern countryside. Shelling has been reported repeatedly. Afrin province, controlled by the Kurdish opposition, was shelled in October. ??? Protests against SDF forces have been reported. In October, a meeting between Turkish officials and the Syrian opposition took place, which resulted in a decision to unify administration of the border crossings and the army under the interim government. ? As of September, repeated airstrikes and shelling by pro-government forces were reported in western and southern Aleppo governorate and on the outskirts of Aleppo city, after advancements by HTS.??Civilian infrastructure, including hospitals and schools, has been targeted.?
ar Raqqa: The SDF launched an offensive on Raqqa in November 2016, backed by US airstrikes, and managed to recapture the city on 17 October. Some 3,000 civilians were evacuated to SDF controlled territory as international coalition forces prepared to take full control of the city.? Raqqa Civil Council was set up by the opposition to rebuild and govern Raqqa.? The SDF forces announced that the city of Raqqa and the surrounding governorate should be a part of a decentralised federal Syria.?
At the end of July, Syrian government forces and allies recaptured territory from IS in the countryside southeast of Raqqa.? They advanced into the governorate as part of an offensive to reach the oil-rich province of Deir-ez-Zor, clashing with SDF south of Raqqa.?
Dara'a: Dara'a is included in the ceasefire agreed by the US and Russia in early July. As of October, shelling by the regime forces has been reported across the governorate, as well as fighting between the opposition and IS-affiliated extremist group, Jaysh Khalid Ibn Al-Walid. HTS attacked the areas controlled by Jaysh Khalid Ibn Al-Walid. ??? As of 28 July, the ceasefire was generally holding in the area, with limited violations.?
Idlib: Fighting has generally decreased in Idlib since the beginning of the ceasefire in areas where it applies. However, since September government forces intensified their attacks against the opposition, which resulted in heavy airstrikes and many civilian deaths. Hospitals, schools, and residential areas were targeted.??? In September, Russia, Iran, and Turkey have planned to post observers on the edge of the de-escalation zone in Idlib governorate, which is largely controlled by Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (HTS). As a result, Turkey deployed their troops and military vehicles on 12 October and started a military operation aiming to encircle a Kurdish enclave, preventing them from reuniting Kurdish-controlled territories, according to the opposition groups. In late October, a meeting between Turkish officials and the Syrian opposition took place, which resulted in a decision to unify administration of the border crossings and the army under the interim government. The National Salvation Government was created by opposition groups in the beginning of November to govern the liberated areas. ???? Shelling was reported on the border on 8 October, forcing the inhabitants of a nearby IDP camp to flee.? HTS has gained control of Idlib city at the end of July. Protests have been held against their presence.??? Public resentment and demonstrations have been reported after civilians were killed by Turkish border guards who want to prevent people from crossing.?
Hama: Fighting between the government and the opposition forces continues in November, especially in al-Lataminah town in the countryside of Hama. In the northern and northeastern countryside violent clashes were reported between HTS, the government and IS, and the government has been advancing since the beginning of November. ??As of 19 September, several opposition groups launched a large-scale offensive on the government-held areas, which resulted in an increase in airstrikes.? As of 5 October increased fighting was reported in As-Saan district between the armed opposition groups, causing increased displacement.?Government forces are advancing in IS-controlled areas in east Hama governorate, supported by airstrikes.?? They have besieged the Uqayribat area in the countryside east of Hama, which is connected to another conflict area between the government and IS in northeastern Homs. The government has made significant gains, but also suffered setbacks, gaining and losing territory multiple times.???Pro-government forces have regained most of the territory lost in northern Hama governorate during a March 2017 offensive by opposition groups, mainly from Tahrir al-Sham.
Homs: Clashes are ongoing in northwestern Homs between IS and the pro-government forces. In the beginning of November the Israeli strikes targeted industrial town Hisya in the governorate. ? On 1 October extremist groups captured Al-Qaryatayn from government forces as part of a wider counter-attack; government forces recaptured Al-Qaryatayn on 21 October and they have been fighting to regain the territory in the eastern and southeastern countryside.??? As of August pro-government forces control al Sukhna, located on the main desert highway between Palmyra and the government's besieged enclave at Deir-ez-Zor, about 130km to the east. ? Russian defense officials and representatives of Syrian opposition groups renewed a ceasefire in northern Homs at the beginning of October.? A contentious obstacle to the negotiation process is the release of 7,000 opposition members detained by pro-government forces.??
Damascus/Rural Damascus: A group of opposition fighters announced a ceasefire established with Russian guarantees in the government-surrounded suburbs of south Damascus in October. They refused to negotiate directly with the Syrian government.? IS and opposition forces have been clashing in the southern section of Damascus near the IS-controlled Yarmouk camp since October. The FSA accused IS of using chemical weapons in an attack in October. ?? A government offensive is currently ongoing in southeastern Rural Damascus, along the Jordan border and the government is advancing and taking control of border posts.?? The offensive forced residents of Hadalat IDP camp to flee in mid-August. ?? As of end August, pro-government forces have regained control of the area on the Syrian-Lebanese border, and agreed with IS on an evacuation plan.? Evacuation has been hampered by US airstrikes.?? In September, shelling by Israeli bombs targeting storage sites of Hezbollah, was reported near Syria's Damascus International Airport.? Hezbollah launched an offensive against IS in the western Qalamoun mountains in August.?
A ceasefire was declared in the government-besieged area of Eastern Ghouta on 22 July, but breaches, including airstrikes, continue to be reported. ??Eastern Ghouta area saw an escalation of violence as of late September, resulting in losses in civilian infrastructure, including hospitals and schools. In November, intensive shelling has been reported in this area. ??? Since mid-June, government airstrikes had been hitting the opposition-controlled Jobar district in eastern Damascus, and clashes have occurred. Jobar is currently divided between government and opposition forces. It is important to both as the western gate to Eastern Ghouta. A 2km section of a strategic highway connecting Damascus to government military bases on the city's northeastern outskirts also runs through the district. Clashes between the same parties are also occurring in Ein Tarma area of Eastern Ghouta.????
Deir-ez-Zor: At the beginning of November the government forces announced that Deir-Ez-Zor city was fully recaptured from IS. The offensive focuses on the al-Bokamal city and surrounding desert. About 40% of the governorate is still under IS control.?? In October, the government forces managed to retake Al-Mayadeen, which was an IS stronghold. Despite occasional counter-offensives by IS, the government continues to advance.?? Government forces fight against the IS in the southeastern countryside of Deir-ez-Zor, whereas the SDF forces continue to gain new territories from IS, including strategic oil fields, in the northern and eastern countryside.?? IS had been sieging areas of Deir-ez-Zor city controlled by government forces since 2015.?Despite the counterattack by IS, the Syrian army advanced and recaptured a major supply route linking Palmyra to Deir-Ez-Zor.? The SDF have also clashed against IS in northwestern areas of the governorate, where they are conducting a separate operation.?? The SDF has accused the Russian airforce of targeting its positions in Deir-ez-Zor.??
Quneitra/Golan Heights: Israeli airstrikes on government positions have been reported repeatedly as of October.? In the beginning of November the fighting between the government forces and opposition groups escalated after the suicide attack by an HTS fighter killed at least nine and injured about 20 people in Hader, which is a part of Syrian controlled Golan Heights. ? The governorate is included in the ceasefire brokered by the US and Russia which came into effect on 9 July; sporadic clashes have occurred since the ceasefire.???
As Sweida: The eastern countryside of the governorate remains under the control of the government. Shelling has been reported in this area in November.? The governorate is part of the ceasefire brokered by the US and Russia in early July. However, breaches have been reported.??On 10 July, the SAA launched an offensive on eastern side of the governorate, seizing villages from the FSA. The area of clashes is just outside the ceasefire area convened by the brokers of the ceasefire, which includes most of Sweida. ?
Al Hasakeh: As of October, the SDF operation against the IS continues in the southern countryside of Al-Hasakah city. Clashes were reported in the entrence of Markada town, which is the last town controlled by the IS in the governorate.?