Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.30 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Sudan: Escalation of violence
Sudan: Economic crisis
Conflict, political instability, slow and sudden onset disasters, and poor economic conditions contribute to Sudan’s complex crisis, which has left 8.5 million Sudanese in need of humanitarian assistance. The crisis has generated food insecurity, malnutrition, and a lack of access to basic services, particularly health services and medicines. The complex crisis has led to the internal displacement of more than 2 million Sudanese since 2010. Additionally, Sudan is host to around 1 million refugees, including over 810,000 refugees from South Sudan, and acts a key transit country for migrants from the Horn of Africa heading to Europe.?
The political backdrop of Sudan’s complex crisis has been particularly dynamic since 11 April 2019, when President Omar al-Bashir was overthrown in a military coup, after a 30-year rule. Since 21 August, an 11-member Sovereign Council has been the collective head of state, consisting of members selected by both the Transitional Military Council (TMC), and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) alliance. Although the council aims to steer the country toward democratic elections in 2022, mass protests have continued frequently throughout Sudan. Alongside political developments, conflicts between armed groups have continued, maintaining protection concerns for the population.?
Sudan has a high exposure to natural hazards. Slow onset disasters, such as desertification and drought, strongly deteriorate agricultural conditions and increase food insecurity across the country.? Sudan is also prone to sudden onset disasters, such as floods. The 2019 rainy season (June-October) led to widespread flooding that destroyed homes and farmland, damaged infrastructure, and impeded humanitarian access. ?
INFORM measures Sudan's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 6.9/10, and level of hazard & exposure at 7.3/10.?
09/01/2020: An escalation of violence, beginning 28 December, has led to the destruction of IDP camps and villages in El Geneina, West Darfur. The event has displaced approximately 40,000 people, including 32,000 from Krinding 1, Krinding 2, and Al Sultan IDP camps. Many of those affected are in need of food, protection, shelter, and NFIs. As of 7 January, 5,500 of those displaced had fled to Chad. Others were reportedly taking refuge in government buildings, schools, and other public spaces in and around El Geneina that are not properly equipped to act as shelters. WASH concerns are high, due to a lack of water and adequate sanitation facilities. Despite the establishment of additional health clinics, there are concerns that gaps exist in the ability to address the medical needs of those affected, particularly children under 5. The long-term impact of the event for ongoing peace talks regarding the Darfur region are not yet clear. ?
For more information on current disease outbreaks, please see the relevant paragraph below.
Very high constraints
Humanitarian access deteriorated during the escalation of protests in June 2019, when security forces raided demonstrations, resulting in significant operational constraints. Humanitarian operations remain restricted in conflict areas. Areas in Blue Nile and South Kordofan controlled by the Sudan People ’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) remain hard to access. In Jebel Marra, Darfur, the United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) personnel were sporadically denied access to conflict areas due to insecurity. Humanitarian travel policies were eased in 2016, but administrative procedures still present obstacles. Mines, explosive remnants and poor roads hamper assistance. In August 2019 heavy rains and flooding damaged infrastructure further, hindering the delivery of aid. The economic crisis and countrywide lack of fuel and hard currency hamper delivery and access to aid.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Information Gaps and Needs
- Lack of regular gender-sensitive needs assessments in all sectors.
- Lack of information about the security situation in conflict-affected areas.
- Access to public services often remains unclear in rural and remote areas.
- Information about refugees, their whereabouts and the severity of their needs remain limited.
Food security: Around 5.8 million people are experiencing Crisis phase or worse (IPC 3 or higher) levels of food insecurity across the country?. Broad instability, leading to increased food prices, is expected to continue to heighten levels of food insecurity across the country into January 2020.?
Health: Outbreaks, especially waterborne diseases, are straining limited health services. Severe medicine shortages are reported countrywide. ? Health and hygiene promotion is needed to prevent the spread of diseases in many parts of the country. Some 5.2 million people are in need of healthcare. ?
Protection: Approximately 3.9 million people are in need of protection. Protests increase protection concerns. Civilians across Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile are at high risk due to continuous high insecurity levels.?
Since 28 August 2019, cholera has been on the rise in Sudan, predominately in the states of Blue Nile and Sinnar. The number of confirmed cases as of 19 November is 337, including 11 deaths.?On 7 October, 1.6 million doses of Oral Cholera vaccines were flown into Khartoum in an effort to control the outbreak.? Simulteanously, Sudan is also experiencing its first outbreak of Rift Valley Fever since 2008. As of 11 November, there have been 293 suspected cases of the disease, including 11 associated deaths. The concentration of cases are primarily in Red Sea State and River Nile States.?
A dengue fever outbreak since 4 August has affected 7 states, resulting in 1,197 suspected cases and 5 deaths as of 22 November.?The combination of outbreaks across Sudan puts pressure on an already debilitated health system, leading to the need for external assistance.