Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.40 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.40 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Somalia: Gu season floods
Outbreaks in East Africa: Desert Locusts and COVID-19
There are 5.2 million people in need of humanitarian assistance in Somalia.?The country also has a high number of IDPs and refugees who have left the country, with more than 3.6 million who have been displaced by conflict, insecurity, forced evictions, droughts, and floods.? Clan disputes, protests, the weakness of the national forces, the gradual withdrawal of the African Union Mission in Somalia, Islamic State and continuing Al Shabaab attacks cause insecurity and instability across Somalia.
The insecurity, along with displacement and limited WASH interventions, has complicated the health crisis. Essential primary healthcare is largely unavailable. Vulnerable groups include female-headed households, children, the elderly, people with disabilities and marginalised communities. 3.2 million people are estimated in need of protection.?are around 30,000 refugees and asylum-seekers registered in Somalia, mainly from Ethiopia.?
Food security and nutrition are deteriorating, particularly in northern and central Somalia. The economic impacts of COVID-19, floods during Gu season and desert locust are causing an increase in food insecurity levels. Further deterioration of food security is expected in the dry season of July to Spetember; it is expected that 3.5 people will be unable to meet their minimum food needs.?
INFORM measures Somalia's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high, at 9.1/10.?
30/07/2020: Immunisation rates have fallen since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially over March-May, as campaigns were postponed to avoid the spread of the virus. Caregivers are also less willing to participate in immunisation campaigns because they fear exposure to COVID-19, are concerned they might not be able to maintain physical distance, and cannot afford to buy masks. In 2020, the Federal Government of Somalia was forced to postpone all the planned regular large-scale health campaigns that aimed to provide eligible children with vaccination for measles and polio. The seasonal floods that have affected large parts of Somalia since April have severely damaged the sanitation infrastructure, increasing the risk of outbreaks and spread of communicable diseases such as cholera and polio.?
28/07/2020: The continuous and protracted displacement due to extreme climate conditions and insecurity has led to overcrowded IDP sites, increasing the risk of the spread of COVID-19. In Banadir region, which currently hosts 500,000 IDPs spread across 700 settlements, health services scaled down to almost half due to lack of funding and COVID-19-related restrictions.?
21/07/2020: Seasonal rains triggered riverine and flash flooding affecting more than 105,000 people in Hirshabelle, South West, and Jubaland states, and Banaadir region. Over 40 villages were flooded, most in Balcad district (Hirshabelle) and Afgooye district (South West). At least 33,000 hectares of farmland were inundated with water, including vegetable crops destroyed in Balcad. Food, shelter/NFI, WASH, health, nutritional assistance, and COVID-19 awareness are urgently needed.?
For more information on the desert locust outbreak in East Africa, please see the relevant paragraph below.
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
Very high constraints
Humanitarian operations in Somalia consistently face high constraints amid high levels of insecurity, due to intercommunal violence, military operations, and the presence of Al Shabaab. Conflict and climate-related events hamper the ability of people in need to access assistance. Humanitarian operations are challenged by logistical constraints, presence of improvised explosive devices, and violent incidents across the country. Although Al Shabaab is predominantly concentrated in rural areas, attacks on public infrastructure in cities remain a threat. Some areas controlled by Al Shabaab are completely inaccessible for humanitarians, particularly in the already hard-to-reach rural areas of the south-central parts of Somalia. The 2020 Gu rainy season (April-June) caused seasonal floods, rendering large areas difficult to reach.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Source : ACLED - https://www.acleddata.com/data/
Food security: Food security is deteriorating, particularly in northern and central Somalia, where dry conditions persist. Despite an above-average rainfall in October-December 2019 resulting in above-average cereal crop and livestock production, 2.1 million people are estimated to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) between April and June 2020. New locusts swarms are developing and building up at the onset of the Gu planting season, and risk destroying farmers’ newly planted crops.?
Health: Over 2.4 million people in Somalia require lifesaving essential healthcare and nutrition services. Excess mortality and increased morbidity continue to be driven by malnutrition, disease outbreaks and limited healthcare. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, lack of funding, and night curfews healthcare services had been significantly scaled down in IDP camps.?
Shelter/NFIs: Shelter and non-food items (NFI) needs are high, especially in IDP sites. Many IDP households decide to live in informal structures due to overcrowding in official camps. The makeshift shelters, however, do not provide adequate privacy nor protection against bad weather conditions. Makeshift shelters are often set up on private land, putting IDPs at risk of evictions. Additionally, about one-third of Somalia's population lack essential NFIs. ?
Information Gaps and Needs
- There are significant information gaps about the number of people in need and the severity of their needs. People in need and severity is currently based upon IPC phases (including updated figures as a result of the ongoing food insecurity).
- Limited up to date information on injuries as a result of conflict in the country.
Desert Locust Outbreak
The Horn of Africa is suffering from the worst desert locust infestation in decades, threatening food security and livelihoods. Since July 2019, eight countries have been most affected: Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Sudan.?
In Somalia, small clusters of desert locusts were detected in December 2019. By February 2020, as locusts continued to breed in the northeast of the country, it became the worst locust infestation the country has experienced in 25 years, promoting the government to declare a nation-wide emergency. 3.5 million people are projected to face Crisis (IPC-3) food insecurity or worse between July and September 2020. As of March 2020, the locust infestation has damaged more than 25,000km of pastoral land.?
The ability of desert locusts to form large swarms and consume vast quantities of crops poses severe risks to food security and livelihoods in the affected countries, where more than 20 million people already face IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) or higher levels of food insecurity.?