Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.70 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.20 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
Somalia: Gu season floods
Outbreaks in East Africa: Desert Locusts and COVID-19
There are 5.2 million people in need of humanitarian assistance in Somalia.?The country also has a high number of IDPs and refugees who have left the country, with more than 3.6 million who have been displaced by conflict, insecurity, forced evictions, droughts, and floods.? Clan disputes, protests, the weakness of the national forces, the gradual withdrawal of the African Union Mission in Somalia, Islamic State and continuing Al Shabaab attacks cause insecurity and instability across Somalia.
The insecurity, along with displacement and limited WASH interventions, has complicated the health crisis. Essential primary healthcare is largely unavailable. Vulnerable groups include female-headed households, children, the elderly, people with disabilities and marginalised communities. 3.2 million people are estimated in need of protection.?are around 30,000 refugees and asylum-seekers registered in Somalia, mainly from Ethiopia.?
Food security and nutrition are deteriorating, particularly in northern and central Somalia. The economic impacts of COVID-19, seasonal floods and desert locust are causing an increase in food insecurity levels. Further deterioration of food security is expected in the dry season of July to September; it is expected that 3.5 million people will be unable to meet their minimum food needs.?
INFORM measures Somalia's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high, at 9.1/10.?
02/03/2021: Over 2.7 million people are projected to face Crisis (IPC phase 3) or Emergency (IPC phase 4) levels of food insecurity between April and June 2021, compared to 1.55 million people in the same timeframe of 2020. Food insecurity and malnutrition are likely to deteriorate as a result of localised floods, below-average rainfall, and locust infestation. ?
For more information on the desert locust outbreak in East Africa, please see the relevant paragraph below.
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
Very high constraints
Violent attacks in Somalia have continued to increase throughout 2020, particularly those targeting humanitarian workers – which makes humanitarian operations in Somalia challenging and unstable. The perpetual outbreaks of violence inflict damage upon infrastructure, including transportation routes and lines of communication, strongly impacting humanitarian access. The extent of the federal government’s control and influence varies from region to region, which affects the reach of humanitarian organisations in the country. Administrative and bureaucratic barriers to effective humanitarian operations are prevalent in government-controlled areas. Poor infrastructure was worsened by the onset of region-wide flooding between July–August 2020, limiting humanitarian access and effective delivery of aid to those in need. COVID-19-related restrictions, such as the suspension of vaccination campaigns and the restriction of movement within the country, have created further impediments to the implementation of humanitarian programmes and aid delivery.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Food security: Food security is deteriorating, particularly in northern and central Somalia, where dry conditions persist. Despite an above-average rainfall in October-December 2019 resulting in above-average cereal crop and livestock production, 2.1 million people are estimated to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) between April and June 2020. New locusts swarms are developing and building up at the onset of the Gu planting season, and risk destroying farmers’ newly planted crops.?
Health: Over 2.4 million people in Somalia require lifesaving essential healthcare and nutrition services. Excess mortality and increased morbidity continue to be driven by malnutrition, disease outbreaks and limited healthcare. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, lack of funding, and night curfews healthcare services had been significantly scaled down in IDP camps.?
Shelter/NFIs: Shelter and non-food items (NFI) needs are high, especially in IDP sites. Many IDP households decide to live in informal structures due to overcrowding in official camps. The makeshift shelters, however, do not provide adequate privacy nor protection against bad weather conditions. Makeshift shelters are often set up on private land, putting IDPs at risk of evictions. Additionally, about one-third of Somalia's population lack essential NFIs. ?
Information Gaps and Needs
- There are significant information gaps about the number of people in need and the severity of their needs. People in need and severity is currently based upon IPC phases (including updated figures as a result of the ongoing food insecurity).
- Limited up to date information on injuries as a result of conflict in the country.