Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)1.70 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.1.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.60 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.1.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Philippines: Polio outbreak
Philippines: Displacement from Marawi City
The ‘Moro conflict’ in Mindanao between the Philippines government and Moro Muslim groups has been ongoing since 1969, with increasing intensity over the last decade. The conflict has led to widespread displacement, as well as infrastructure and shelter damage. The year 2019 began with the prospects of a peace deal, with March bringing the establishment of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM). However, violence, especially related to armed groups excluded from the peace process, continued across Mindanao throughout 2019, forcing 117,000 people from their homes.?
Armed conflict and violence is particularly high in the provinces of Lanao Del Sur, Maguindanao, and Sulu, where clashes between the Philippine military and armed groups, such as Abu Sayaff Group, occur frequently. The seige of Marawi City, a five-month battle between pro-Islamic State fighters and the Philippine military occurred in 2017 and destroyed much of the city and displaced 400,000 people from Marawi and nearby towns. Two years later, approximately 130,000 residents from Marawi are still in temporary shelters or with relatives, unable to return home because much of the city remains in ruins. Estimates suggest it could take as muc ha 5 years to rebuild the city.?
The Mindanao Region is also extremely prone to natural disasters, including flooding, cyclones, and earthquakes, which drive the majority of displacement in the region.
INFORM measures Philippines's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 5.5/10.?
The number of polio cases in the Philippines continues to rise since the declaration of a national outbreak in September and a first case of transmission across the national border to Malaysia has been detected. As of 11 December, there are nine confirmed human polio cases of circulating vaccine derived polio type 2 (cVDPV2), all from Mindanao island (BARMM and Region XII). In addition, the Philippines is now also affected by an outbreak of circulating vaccine derived polio type 1 (cVDPV1) detected in environmental samples in Manila. A child from Basilan, BARMM, has been infected with vaccine derived polio type 1 (VDPV1). This virus has spread to Malaysia where a child in Sabah State diagnosed with polio has been confirmed to have been infected by a virus (cVDPV1) genetically linked to the case in Basilan. Malaysia had been declared polio-free along with the Philippines and other countries in the Western Pacific region in 2000.?
19/12/2019 On 15 December, a 6.9 magnitude earthquake struck Matanao, Davao del Sur province, on Mindanao island. As of 17 December, 108,000 people are estimated to have been affected in Region XI of which 14,000 persons are staying in evacuation centres and 18,000 people are outside evacuation centers. A total of eleven fatalities and over 200 injuries have been confirmed. Assessments on the ground are still ongoing. The impact adds to previous damage caused by an earthquake series affecting Tulunan, Cotabato province, in October. Aftershocks continue to affect the region.?
19/12/2019 During November armed conflict broke out multiple times between the Philippine Armed Forces and a faction of the armed non-state group Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) in Maguindanao. The conflict has triggered mass displacement across five municipalities. As of 16 December, about 32,000 persons are staying in evacuation centers and 11,600 outside of evacuation centers.?
12/12/2019 Between 2 and 3 December typhoon Tisoy (internationally referred to as Kammuri) struck the Philippines making landfall several times causing heavy winds, rain, and flooding. As of 12 December, the National Disaster Risk Reduction an Management Council (NDRRMC) reports that the typhoon affected 5 regions and a total of over 1,9 million people. Over 450,000 people were preemptively evacuated and 85,508 people remain displaced of which 75,900 are in evacuation centres. The NDRRMC also confirmed 4 fatalities and says over 300 people got injured. The main affected regions are in the central Philippines including the regions of Bicol, Calabarzon, Eastern Visayas, and Mimaropa. The affected areas experienced the destruction of infrastructure and houses, flooding and interruptions of electricity and telecommunication of which some continue to face electricity cuts and impassable roads while clearing operations are ongoing.?
Shelter: IDPs in evacuation camps continue to stay in family tents originally meant to only last for six months. The tents are no longer able to provide adequate protection from extreme temperatures. 58% of planned transitory shelter units are still being constructed. Completed shelter units are still unoccupied, with issues relating to eligibility, inclusion, and installation of utilities preventing IDPs from being accommodated.?
WASH: Transitory Sites lack access to clean water and sanitation. In Sagonsongan, septic tanks are already full and in need of desludging. In Sagonsongan and Sarimanok Tent City, water is supplied by trucks provided by NGOs, one of which would cease their intervention by end of June 2019. Maintenance of latrines is likewise a challenge. Some latrines had to be closed due to lack of water supply.?
Health: Mindano island experiences a recent outbreak of polio declared in September 2019.?
Access to information: While IDPs receive information on schedules of distribution of assistance and profiling activities, there is a need to improve access to information on government plans regarding the rehabilitation of the most affected areas. IDPs, especially those in remote areas, are not able to participate in consultation or information sessions usually organized and conducted in Marawi City.?