• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 100,979,000 Total population [?]
  • 231,000 People affected [?]
  • 231,000 People in Need [?]



Since 1969, there has been active conflict in Mindanao between the Philippine government, Moro Muslim groups, and other armed groups. This has led to widespread displacement, as well as infrastructure and shelter damage. The prospects of a peace deal seemed possible after the establishment of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao in March 2019, but violence – related to the exclusion of armed groups from the peace process – continued across Mindanao throughout 2019. In the first half of 2020, there were 66,000 new displacements because of the conflict in Mindanao.?

Armed conflict and violence are particularly common in the provinces of Lanao Del Sur, Maguindanao, and Sulu, where clashes between the Philippine military and armed groups occur frequently. The siege of Marawi city in 2017, a five-month battle between pro-Islamic State fighters and the Philippine military, destroyed much of the city and displaced 400,000 people from Marawi and nearby towns. Three years later, approximately 126,000 residents from Marawi are in permanent shelters, temporary shelters, or living with relatives, unable to return home because the city remains in ruins. Estimates suggest it could take up to five years to rebuild the city.?

The Mindanao island group is also extremely prone to natural disasters, including flooding, cyclones, and earthquakes, which drive the majority of displacement in the region. 

INFORM measures the Philippines' risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 5.3/10.?

Latest Developments


06/05/2021:  Aerial bombardment and clashes between military and Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters over 23 April-6 May displaced more than 35,000 people (7,145 families) within Maguindanao province. They are sheltering in 46 evacuation centres or with relatives. The highest number of IDPs are in East Libutan (3,500), Dapiawan (2,455), and Salbu (3,345) barangays. Evacuation centres lack space, privacy, non-food items, latrines, and WASH facilities, while those hosted by relatives are in need of food assistance. Conflict in Maguindanao has also disrupted education and livelihood activities. IDPs are particularly affected by hindered access to sources of income.?

Key Concerns


Shelter: IDPs in Mindanao live in permanent housing, in transitory sites, or are hosted by friends or relatives. The building of additional transitory shelters has been delayed because of issues around eligibility, inclusion, and installation of utilities. For those living with family or friends, lack of privacy and limited space are commonly reported issues. Availability of permanent housing, eligibility, and administrative impediments are major access issues for most IDPs.?

WASH: Transitory sites lack access to clean water and sanitation. IDPs report limited numbers of latrines, resulting in open defecation and increasing the spread of communicable diseases.?

Food and livelihoods: IDPs report being unable to pay for their daily needs because of limited livelihood opportunities. IDPs say they are unable to sell their produce at the market or cultivate their land because of COVID-19 movement restrictions and armed conflict. Dry commodities (noodles, rice, and canned goods) remain the only form of assistance. There is a need for more nutritious food.?

Access to services: Overall, access to assistance remains an issue, particularly for those who are not registered as IDPs but who have still been displaced. Basic facilities can barely meet the needs of host communities, leaving displaced people with extremely restricted access.?