Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.40 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.1.70 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.00 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Philippines: Typhoon Phanfone
Philippines: Typhoon Tisoy
The Philippines is among the most disaster-prone countries of the world, with typhoons, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions
, accounting for more than 4 million displacements in 2019.?
In October 2019, a series of earthquakes hit Mindanao island, particularly affecting Tulunan, North Cotabato province (Region XII) in central Mindanao. The earthquakes killed 23 people, affected over 350,000 people, and caused severe infrastructure damage. As of 11 June, 74,240 people remain displaced (some 14,835 in evacuation centres and 59,405 with relatives/friends), with current needs unclear.?
In May 2020, Typhoon Ambo made landfall seven times, affecting 580,000 people in Eastern Samar, Calabarazon, and Bicol regions. Destructive winds, flooding, and landslides resulted in significant damage to agriculture and damaged 60,000 homes as well as multiple health facilities. As of 9 July, the shelters to accommodate those internally displaced have all been closed, with the current number of those still displaced unclear.?
Protracted armed conflict and clan violence in southern Mindanao has led to a complex humanitarian situation on Mindanao island. More than 152,000 people are displaced in Mindanao as a result of armed conflict, including 127,000 individuals still displaced from the siege on Marawi City in 2017.?
INFORM measures the Philippines's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 5.3/10.?
Flash floods on 14 October in Cotabato province affected over 120,000 people, of whom 3,600 were displaced. The southwest monsoon and Tropical Depression Ofel continue to impact other areas of the Philippines, including Mindanao island and Cebu province. Some 20,000 people have been affected in Cebu province, with 250 temporarily displaced.?
Health: The Philippines is currently experiencing multiple outbreaks, including polio in conflict-affected Mindanao and dengue fever in the Eastern Visayas region affected by Typhoon Ambo. Displacement, damaged shelters, and stagnant and contaminated water contribute to the spread of these diseases.?
Shelter: Typhoon Ambo damaged more than 60,000 homes, and conflict results in thousands of new displacements each month. Many people displaced by conflict are sheltering in tents or in open spaces.?
WASH: People living in evacuation shelters, including more than 100,000 displaced from the October 2019 earthquakes in Mindanao, lack access to WASH facilities. Damage to water infrastructure and drainage systems has resulted in an increased practice of open defecation. IDPs are heavily reliant on contaminated water sources.?
A national outbreak of polio was declared by the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) on 19 September 2019, almost 20 years after the country was declared polio-free.
The country is affected by both circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2).
Vaccine-derived poliovirus is considered an international public health concern. As of June 2020, there are 16 confirmed polio cases. Polio is highly contagious and affects mainly children under five years of age. Mass immunisation campaigns were launched by humanitarian and government agencies, but suspended in March 2020 due to COVID-19 restrictions.?
Restrictions implemented to combat COVID-19 have resulted in the delay and suspension of multiple humanitarian activities.
A polio vaccination campaign in Mindanao, originally scheduled for 23 March, is postponed until further notice owing to COVID-19 quarantine restrictions. Polio was eradicated from the Philippines in 2000 and re-emerged in Sept 2019, with Mindanao being the most affected region.?
The preparation and response to Typhoon Ambo was also disrupted due to COVID-19 restrictions. Emergency shelters were limited to 50% capacity to maintain social distancing and requirements for humanitarian workers to have protective equipment has slowed the deployment of teams accross the affected area.?
The ACAPS team is monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. For more information related to the outbreak, see the ACAPS COVID-19 Project.
Information Gaps and Needs
There are information gaps surrounding the needs of conflict-affected communities in Mindanao. Displacement is often temporary, with people returning to their homes after violence subsides. Movement is often recurring, with people becoming displaced multiple times over the course of a year. Severity of need related to disruption in services and access to humanitarian aid is difficult to assess.