• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 16,991,000 People exposed [?]



The disputed territory of Kashmir has caused India and Pakistan to fight two wars since their partition in 1947. Thousands of militants have fought for the separation of Kashmir from India: some demanding accession to Pakistan and others calling for complete independence for the region. In 2019, a series of attacks on Indian forces by Pakistani-based militant groups, coupled with political efforts by the Indian government to strip Jammu and Kashmir of its autonomy escalated the long-running conflict and deteriorated the humanitarian situation in the region.?

Shelling between Pakistani and Indian security forces and militant attacks, especially along the Line of Control (LoC), have caused displacements and casualties. In Jammu and Kashmir, approximately 75-100,000 people are temporarily displaced each year due to conflict. While cross-border displacement is rare, reports indicate that 40,000 refugees from Indian-administered Kashmir are living in Pakistan-administered Kashmir in poor conditions in camps in Muzaffarabad. The number of displacements on the Pakistan side of the LoC are not verifiable due to information gaps.?

There is limited information regarding the humanitarian situation in the Kashmir region, owing to access restrictions imposed by both governments. In Jammu and Kashmir, this lack of information is exacerbated by severe restrictions on communications services. Protection is a significant concern. Reports indicate human rights violations by militants and government security forces are common on both sides of the LoC.?

Latest Developments


There are no significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team. 

ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.

Key Priorities


Protection: Shelling along the Line of Control poses a protection risk to people throughout Kashmir region. Casualties have spiked in recent years on both sides of the border. Human rights violations, including detention of separatists, excessive use of force, and restrictions on movement are used by both Pakistan and India to suppress independence movements in the region.?

Health: In Jammu and Kashmir, access to healthcare is constrained by communications and movement restrictions. The situation is marked by medicine shortages, delayed treatment, and inaccessibility of health facilities. In Azad Kashmir, access to healthcare is less restricted, however, the infrastructure, especially in rural areas is generally poor, and disease outbreaks are common. Refugees in Pakistan report limited access to healthcare.?

Humanitarian Access Constraints


In India administered Kashmir, the population continues to face extreme movement restrictions and an internet blackout. Military checkpoints and curfews in Kashmir severely affect the free movement of people, medical equipment, and hospital personnel, and have resulted in significant shortages of healthcare personnel, ambulances, ventilators, and oxygen. Access to basic services and aid for the affected population remains a challenge. Access constraints remain high across Pakistan. Increased violence along the Line of Control in Azad Jammu and Kashmir restricted the movement of people, caused displacements, and disrupted access to basic services.?

Information Gaps and Needs


There is no severity score for the Kashmir Regional crisis due to information gaps.

Restrictions on access to the region by India and Pakistan poses a challenge for verifying the number of people affected, displacement numbers and locations of displaced, and the priority humanitarian needs and severity of those needs.