Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)0 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.0 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.0 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.90 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
In Pakistan-Administered Kashmir, tension along the Line of Control with India, militant movements, and calls for independence have resulted in a precarious humanitarian situation.
The conflict is primarily marked by shelling and attacks near the Line of Control with India. Exchanges of fire between Pakistani and Indian forces are common, and have escalated in recent years. Militant groups in the region have recruited young people and encourage the use of violence to achieve independence for Kashmir, engaging in targeted attacks against both Pakistani and Indian security personnel. Conflict along the Line of Control has resulted in civilian casualties and displacement, with the exact number difficult to verify due to lack of data. Reports indicate that 40,000 refugees from Indian-Administered Kashmir are living in poor conditions in camps in Muzaffarabad, capital of Pakistan’s Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) territory, without access to livelihoods or public services.?
Protection is a significant concern. Human rights violations, including arbitrary detention, suppression of political parties, and forcible evictions are used as a systematic means of challenging calls for independence of Kashmir. Protests calling for independence are typically met with violence by Pakistani police.?
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
Information Gaps and Needs
There is no severity score for the Kashmir Regional crisis due to information gaps.
There is little information about displacement numbers or locations in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.
Access restrictions have resulted in a lack of verifiable data on humanitarian needs caused by the conflict.
Humanitarian Access Constraints
Humanitarian access is highly constrained in Pakistan-administered Kashmir due to ongoing insecurity and government restrictions. Government interference in NGO activities is common since 2015, with the most recent incidents being in 2016 when all NGOs in Muzaffarabad were ordered to cease operations and re-register, and 2018, when Pakistan ordered 18 NGOs to suspend operations including several with programming in AJK. Exact data indicating the impact of improvised explosive devices on humanitarian access in Pakistan is unavailable, though reports indicate the presence of mines and unexploded ordnance along the Line of Control. Azad Jammu and Kashmir is also prone to flooding, avalanches, and earthquakes, all of which have caused damage to infrastructure and disrupted provision of public services and humanitarian assistance in 2019 and early 2020.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview