Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.30 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.70 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.5.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Nigeria and Niger: Cholera outbreak
Humanitarian Access Overview
Flooding in Chad, Niger and Nigeria
Nigeria: Banditry violence and displacement in the Northwest
Nigeria: Vulnerabilities to COVID-19 and containment measures
The Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria, surging banditry violence in the northwest, incessant farmer/herder conflict in the Middle Belt and a growing Cameroonian refugee population in the south have contributed to a complex humanitarian crisis. Boko Haram, and its break-out faction ISWAP have continued insurgent activities for over 10 years, including military garrison attacks and attacks on communities and infrastructure. Nigerian government forces and the African Union Multinational Joint Task Force have responded to the militant groups' activities with military operations, causing further insecurity and displacement. The insurgency has further spread to Niger, Chad and Cameroon in the Lake Chad Basin with over 1.8m people internally displaced in Nigeria alone.?
In Nigeria's northwest, activities of 'bandits' in Sokoto, Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger, Zamfara and Katsina states have internally displaced over 160,000 people while causing about 41,000 more to flee to Maradi in neighbouring Niger.?Bandits have engaged in killings, kidnappings for ransom, cattle rustling, and sexual violence in communities.
Violence between herders (also known as pastoralists) and farmers has continued for decades in Nigeria’s Middle Belt states of Taraba, Benue, Kaduna, Plateau, Nasarawa, and Adamawa. Farmer-herder clashes left more than 1,300 people dead and displaced 300,000 people across the country from January-June 2018. There is a lack of recent available data on the amount of people affected by farmer-herder violence.?
The intensification of Cameroon's Anglophone crisis has pushed more than 60,000 people across the Bakassi peninsula into Nigeria.? These refugees are hosted in Nigerian states of Akwa Ibom, Benue, Cross River and Taraba states. Many of the refugees are in need of food, WASH, health, relief and non-relief materials.
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
The humanitarian landscape in Nigeria differs depending on the region. Humanitarian access has deteriorated throughout the country because of rising insecurity, with particularly high constraints throughout northern Nigeria, where most urgent humanitarian needs are reported. Humanitarian access is heavily constrained in the northeastern states of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe as a result of armed activity by non-state armed groups, including Boko Haram and the Islamic State West African Province.
Insecurity and threats of attacks against civilians, humanitarians, and aid facilities affect people’s access to humanitarian assistance. Based on a national counterterrorism law, aid organisations are restricted from operating in areas not under the control of the Federal Government – including in areas controlled by Boko Haram. In the northwestern states of Kaduna, Katsina, Kebbi, and Zamfara, incidents of insecurity and violence have been increasing as a result of criminal activity and banditry. This has affected humanitarian activities and limited the movement of humanitarian goods and staff.
The importing of humanitarian supplies is subjected to specific administrative procedures. Registration processes both at federal and state levels for humanitarian organisations are complex, and states are allowed to implement independent local laws that result in additional conditions being imposed on humanitarian activities in specific areas.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Nigeria Cholera cases
Cholera Outbreak 2021
Cholera is endemic in Nigeria, and outbreaks occur annually, particularly during the rainy season.?86% of the Nigerian population does not have access to safe drinking water, which increases the risk of contamination. Sanitation practices are poor, particularly in rural areas; this is likely to complicate efforts to end the outbreaks.?
The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) began monitoring the number of cholera cases at the beginning of the year. By 15 August, 23 out of 36 states in Nigeria had suspected cholera cases, with a cumulative total of nearly 47,600 suspected cases and 1,768 deaths since January 2021. The number of suspected cholera cases began rising drastically in June, which was attributed to the rainy season. Bauchi, Jigawa, Kano, Sokoto, and Zamfara states in northern Nigeria account for 73% of all suspected cases since the beginning of the year. Bauchi state has the highest number of cases – 14,900 since January 2021.?
Challenges such as high levels of insecurity, weak health infrastructure, and lack of medical personnel in the most affected states have slowed down response efforts.?
Around 12.8 million people in Nigeria are estimated to be facing Crisis or worse food insecurity levels (CH Phase 3 and above) in June–August 2021. In the northeastern states (Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe), nearly 4.4 million people are experiencing a food crisis, with at least 774,000 people facing Emergency (CH Phase 4). Persistent attacks by nonstate armed groups such as Boko Haram have resulted in the displacement of people to neighbouring areas and disruption of farming activities. The purchasing power of the affected population has also declined owing to the impact of insecurity on livelihoods. The rainy season and subsequent flooding are expected to worsen the food crisis in northeast Nigeria. In the rest of northern Nigeria, nearly 5.6 million people are food-insecure, with the banditry crisis and farmer-herder conflict being key drivers. In the Middle Belt region, almost two million people are facing Crisis (CH Phase 3), largely as a result of the farmer-herder conflict, which has caused the displacement of people and destruction of crops. The high inflation rate (17.75% in June 2021) and high food prices, coupled with low-income levels, are also significant drivers of food insecurity in Nigeria and were intensified by COVID-19 lockdowns. ?
As at 19 August, 184,593 cases of COVID-19 had been confirmed in Nigeria, including 14,619 active cases and 2,236 deaths. Most of the cases have been recorded in urban areas (Lagos state and the Federal Capital Territory). IDPs, returnees, and host communities in conflict-affected areas are of particular concern, because of their lack of access to health and WASH and because of densely populated camps.?
Since December 2020, a second surge of cases has been reported (the first one was reported in May–August 2020), leading to the introduction of mitigation measures, as well as restrictions on international travellers. Cases are likely to be underreported because of a lack of testing. A new variant of COVID-19 has been discovered in the country and is under investigation, adding a further challenge to the containment of the outbreak.?
The containment measures have led to a rise in food prices and the disruption of supply chains, which is further worsening food insecurity. Nigeria is planning to vaccinate 40% of the population by the end of 2021.?