• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 220,473,000 Total population [?]
  • 5,540,000 People displaced [?]
  • 15,446,000 People in Need [?]

Special Reports




The Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria, ‘banditry’ violence in the northwest, farmer/pastoralist conflict in the Middle Belt and a growing Cameroonian refugee population in the south have contributed to a complex humanitarian crisis. In southern Nigeria, different armed groups pushing for secession in the Southeast and control of the oil-producing Niger Delta have perpetrated waves of violence in these areas.?

An interplay of various factors drives the complex crisis in Nigeria. Socio-cultural dynamics characterised by a heterogeneous population with an underlying current of ethno-religious tension have led to division between northern and southern Nigeria. This often explodes into conflict whenever there is a trigger. Economic factors such as unemployment, high inflation and poverty also drive insecurity throughout the country, as some youth join criminal gangs and militant groups in a bid for economic survival. Environmental factors also lead to conflict due to climate change and increased competition for scarce land.?

Conflict in different parts of Nigeria has led to internal displacement of nearly 3 million people. More than 336,000 Nigerians have taken refuge in Cameroon, Chad, and Niger.? Livelihood activities such as farming and fishing have been disrupted by conflict, and contributed to food insecurity in Nigeria, particularly in the northwest.? The protracted conflict in the northeast and increased school abductions by armed gunmen in the northwest, have affected access to education and contributed to at least 18.5 million children out of school in 2022.?

INFORM measures Nigeria's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high, at 6.5/10.?

Latest Developments


In 2021, 7.3 million women and girls in Nigeria of ages 15–49 were undernourished – a 30% increase compared to 2018. Undernourished women and adolescent girls face increased risks of fatal complications during pregnancy and childbirth because of weakened immunity. They are in need of nutrition assistance. Undernutrition remains a problem in the country at the same time that it experiences conflict, high levels of poverty, and a food crisis.?

Humanitarian Access


very high Constraints 

Humanitarian access in Nigeria has continued to be highly constrained. Although IDPs and returnees need humanitarian assistance, the Government has been closing IDP camps and facilitating the return of some displaced people. The displaced often return to insecure areas inaccessible to humanitarian groups. Aside from insecurity, bureaucratic and administrative restrictions restrain the access of humanitarian organisations to people in need. The many requirements complicate the registration process for humanitarian organisations. International humanitarian staff also face difficulties receiving visas to work in the country.

In August, non-state armed groups carried out abductions at illegal vehicle checkpoints, which they set up along major highways like the Maiduguri-Gajiram highway. An aid worker was among the people abducted. Violence, conflict, and intercommunal clashes, particularly in the North West, North East, and Middle Belt regions of Nigeria, make movements to seek assistance unsafe for people in need. While travelling, civilians suffer from extortion, sexual violence, abductions, attacks, or violence resulting in death. In the past six months, insecurity has suspended several humanitarian activities. In Takum local government area (Taraba state), which hosts some Cameroonian refugees, intercommunal clashes that broke out in July delayed the distribution of relief supplies. In Monguno local government area (Borno state), humanitarian staff were relocated to Maiduguri after non-state armed groups attacked aid facilities. 

IEDs are widely used in Nigeria, particularly in Borno state. From June–October, IED attacks throughout the country injured 29 civilians and killed 27 others. Limited freedom of movement and restricted access to some areas in Nigeria have made it difficult to determine the exact extent of landmine contamination. Between July–October, heavy rainfall caused the worst flooding in Nigeria, which affected the entire country. Flooded roads and damaged bridges made it difficult to access some affected areas. Damage to telecommunication infrastructure resulting from conflict in the northeast also resulted in a lack of network coverage in affected areas, restricting the submission of data on illnesses and other health concerns and hindering effective decision-making in the health response.

For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – December 2022