Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.30 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.70 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.5.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
Nigeria and Niger: Cholera outbreak
Flooding in Chad, Niger and Nigeria
Nigeria: Banditry violence and displacement in the Northwest
Nigeria: Vulnerabilities to COVID-19 and containment measures
The Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria, surging banditry violence in the northwest, incessant farmer/herder conflict in the Middle Belt and a growing Cameroonian refugee population in the south have contributed to a complex humanitarian crisis. Boko Haram, and its break-out faction ISWAP have continued insurgent activities for over 10 years, including military garrison attacks and attacks on communities and infrastructure. Nigerian government forces and the African Union Multinational Joint Task Force have responded to the militant groups' activities with military operations, causing further insecurity and displacement. The insurgency has further spread to Niger, Chad and Cameroon in the Lake Chad Basin with over 1.8m people internally displaced in Nigeria alone.?
In Nigeria's northwest, activities of 'bandits' in Sokoto, Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger, Zamfara and Katsina states have internally displaced over 160,000 people while causing about 41,000 more to flee to Maradi in neighbouring Niger.?Bandits have engaged in killings, kidnappings for ransom, cattle rustling, and sexual violence in communities.
Violence between herders (also known as pastoralists) and farmers has continued for decades in Nigeria’s Middle Belt states of Taraba, Benue, Kaduna, Plateau, Nasarawa, and Adamawa. Farmer-herder clashes left more than 1,300 people dead and displaced 300,000 people across the country from January-June 2018. There is a lack of recent available data on the amount of people affected by farmer-herder violence.?
The intensification of Cameroon's Anglophone crisis has pushed more than 60,000 people across the Bakassi peninsula into Nigeria.? These refugees are hosted in Nigerian states of Akwa Ibom, Benue, Cross River and Taraba states. Many of the refugees are in need of food, WASH, health, relief and non-relief materials.
12/01 : At least 200 people were killed and 10,000 displaced after a series of attacks by armed bandits in up to 10 villages of Zamfara state within the first week of January. The gunmen opened fire, looted shops, and burned down houses and crops. The attackers also stole around 2,000 cattle. Residents regained access to their villages on 8 January. The attacks follow airstrikes by the military on bandit hideouts in the Gusami forest and in west Tsamre village. The displaced people are likely to need shelter, food, and protection. Some people are still missing following the attack. Armed criminals known locally as bandits have been conducting attacks in Zamfara state for several years, looting property and kidnapping people for ransom.?
Nigeria continues to experience extreme access constraints. Registration processes for humanitarian organisations at federal and state levels are ambiguous; states are allowed to implement independent local laws that result in additional conditions for humanitarian activities in specific areas. Between July–October, movement restrictions were enforced in some areas. In southeast Nigeria, the separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra issued stay-at-home orders on certain dates. In the Plateau, Sokoto, and Zamfara states, authorities instituted travel restrictions and curfews to curb insecurity. Throughout Nigeria, different government agencies and armed groups have also put in place both legal and illegal checkpoints. The violence inflicted by different armed groups, particularly in northern Nigeria, inhibits the movement of affected people from remote rural villages to areas where they can more easily access humanitarian assistance.
A number of factors, including flooding in some regions during the rainy season (March–October), have led to logistical challenges for aid agencies and affected humanitarian cargo supply routes. Armed groups have also attacked and damaged key transport infrastructure such as railway lines. State authorities in northwestern Nigeria have authorised the disruption of telecommunication services starting from September as part of security measures against armed groups.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Cholera Outbreak 2021
Cholera is endemic in Nigeria, and outbreaks occur annually, particularly during the rainy season.?86% of the Nigerian population does not have access to safe drinking water, which increases the risk of contamination. Sanitation practices are poor, particularly in rural areas; this is likely to complicate efforts to end the outbreaks.?
The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) began monitoring the number of cholera cases at the beginning of the year. By 5 December, 32 out of 36 states in Nigeria had suspected cholera cases, with a cumulative total of nearly 107,166 suspected cases and 3,595 deaths since January 2021. The number of suspected cholera cases began rising drastically in June, which was attributed to the rainy season. Bauchi, Jigawa, Kano, Sokoto, Katsina and Zamfara states in northern Nigeria account for 71% of all suspected cases since the beginning of the year. Bauchi state has the highest number of cases – 19,548 since January 2021.?
Challenges such as high levels of insecurity, weak health infrastructure, and lack of medical personnel in the most affected states have slowed down response efforts.?
Around 12.8 million people in Nigeria are estimated to be facing Crisis or worse food insecurity levels (CH Phase 3 and above) in June–August 2021. In the northeastern states (Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe), nearly 4.4 million people are experiencing a food crisis, with at least 774,000 people facing Emergency (CH Phase 4). Persistent attacks by nonstate armed groups such as Boko Haram have resulted in the displacement of people to neighbouring areas and disruption of farming activities. The purchasing power of the affected population has also declined owing to the impact of insecurity on livelihoods. The rainy season and subsequent flooding are expected to worsen the food crisis in northeast Nigeria. In the rest of northern Nigeria, nearly 5.6 million people are food-insecure, with the banditry crisis and farmer-herder conflict being key drivers. In the Middle Belt region, almost two million people are facing Crisis (CH Phase 3), largely as a result of the farmer-herder conflict, which has caused the displacement of people and destruction of crops. The high inflation rate (17.75% in June 2021) and high food prices, coupled with low-income levels, are also significant drivers of food insecurity in Nigeria and were intensified by COVID-19 lockdowns. ?