Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.00 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.2.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.90 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
The Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria, surging banditry violence in the northwest, incessant farmer/herder conflict in the middle belt and a growing Cameroonian refugee population in the south have all culminated into a complex country crisis for the west African giant. Boko Haram, and its break-out faction ISWAP have continued insurgent activities for over 10 years. The Nigerian military, and the African Union Multinational Joint Task Force have had to contend with suicide bombings, military garrison attacks and arsonic raids on both soft and hard targets. The insurgency has further spread to Niger, Chad and Cameroon in the Lake Chad Basin with over 1.8m people internally displaced in Nigeria alone.?
In Nigeria's northwest, activities of bandits in Sokoto, Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger, Zamfara and Katsina states have displaced over 160,000 internally while causing about 41,000 more to flee to Maradi in neighboring Niger Republic.?Bandits engage in killings, kidnappings for ransom, cattle rustling and sexual violence in communities already at the lower ebbs of poverty and development indexes. The discovery of gold reserves in Zamfara means that apart from bandits, security forces have to also contend with activities of illegal miners and NSAGs in the northwest.
Violence between herders (also known as pastoralists) and farmers has continued for decades in Nigeria’s Middle Belt states of Taraba, Benue, Kaduna, Plateau, Nasarawa, and Adamawa. Farmer-herder clashes left more than 1,300 people dead and displaced 300,000 people across the country from January-June 2018. There is a lack of recent available data on the amount of people affected by farmer-herder violence.?
The intensification of Cameroon's Anglophone crisis has pushed more than 60,000 people across the Bakassi peninsula into Nigeria.? These refugees are hosted in Nigerian states of Akwa Ibom, Benue, Cross River and Taraba states. Many of the refugees are in need of food, WASH, health, relief and non-relief materials.
26/03/2020: On 23 March 2020, over 70 soldiers were killed in an ambush near Gorgi village in Borno state Nigeria. The attack was claimed by ISWAP.? On 24 March, over 90 soldiers were killed in an attack in the Boma peninsula, Lac Region in Chad. The attack was claimed by Boko Haram.? Both attacks signify an intensification of insurgent activities in the Lake Chad Basin even though no civilian or displacement numbers have been reported from the attacks. Figures have been confirmed by Government and media sources.
On 1 March, armed men suspected to be bandits killed at least 51 people in an early morning attack on Igabi LGA of Kaduna state. No further information is available on the impact of the attack.?
Humanitarian access in both the northwest and northeast of Nigeria remains challenging due to the volatile security situation. Access to populations is limited to territories under control of the Nigerian army. In addition, heavy rains and flooding have severely disrupted local infrastructure in northeast Nigeria. Insurgents have also rendered important roads and highways unsafe due to frequent attacks. In the Middle Belt region, violent clashes in the context of herdsmen-farmers conflict continue to trigger displacement and sporadically restrict the free movement of populations. Attacks against humanitarian workers and facilities remain a threat in the northeast. Concerns about deterioration of access in the northeast emerged after the government shut down the field offices of some international aid organisations in September 2019, forcing them suspend their activities. Although the aid organizations have resumed their activities, mistrust amongst aid agencies and military personell continue to hinder smooth running of humanitarian activities in affected areas.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Information Gaps and Needs
- There is a lack of data on injuries on the various crises in Nigeria.