Boko Haram (BH)
In late January, an attack on an IDP camp near Maidugur in Borno left over 40 people injured.?
While BH continues to be forced out of areas it has controlled, suicide and indiscriminate attacks on civilians continue across the northeast, particularly Borno state, with targeted attacks on key infrastructure and civilians. ?? ?? The number of reported BH attacks increased in 2017 compared with 2016. Extensive local and international media cataloguing showed a rise from 80 reported attacks in 2016 to 109 in 2017, of which 71 were armed assaults and 38 suicide attacks. The number of suicide attacks almost doubled compared with 2016, when 19 suicide attacks were recorded. Maiduguri LGA has consistently been the most targeted area. BH continues to target both military objectives and civilians, with an increased number of recorded attacks agains IDPs, villages and mosques since 2016.?
In 2016, there were 2,551 deaths across 1,022 incidents, of which 66 incidents occurred in Borno state, resulting in over 800 fatalities. ?
The leader of the Coalition of Niger Delta Agitators has announced a recruitment of up to 5,000 soldiers to support their fight for an Independent Niger Delta Republic. ?
On 19 July 2017 Niger Delta militants attacked Joint Task Force (JTF) troops deployed to Cross River State - the second attack to occur in the Niger Delta region within one week. ?Niger Delta militants have vowed to blow up oil facilities. A community leader stated that the people of the Niger Delta will resume attacks on oil facilities if the Nigerian government continues to ignore them. ? Oil extraction continues to destroy livelihoods across the delta and is the main cause of the tensions between the government and the militants. ?
Violence in the Niger Delta first took place in the early 1990s but attacks on pipelines increased markedly in 2016 when the presidential amnesty programme ceased.? On 7 May 2017, the government announced it would add nearly 100 million USD to a renewed amnesty program. ?In the week prior, 13 oil non-state controlled oil refineries were destroyed by the government. These refineries were a great source of revenue for Niger Delta militant groups. ? ? On 3 May, 15 Niger Delta militants were killed in a clash with the Nigerian army in Ese Odo LGA of Ondo state. ? The Nigerian government announced plans to construct a USD 20 billion gas-fired chemical plant in the Niger Delta. ? Additionally, the Nigerian acting president Yemi Osinbajo directed all international oil companies to move their head offices to the Niger Delta. ?
On 1 January 2018, fighting erupted between Fulani herders and farming communities in southeastern Benue state. This lead to the displacement of over 80,000 people.?
Earlier in 2017, reports indicated tensions were increasing between local communities and Fulani Herders in Bassa LGA, in Kogi state. ?
Tensions continue in Kaduna and Plateau state as the federal government has failed to act with regards to managing the conflict between the Fulani herdsmen and local communities. Many communities have been displaced by the herdsmen, severely impacting livelihoods across the states. The refusal of the Nigerian government to remove the Fulani herders, who are predominantly Muslim, from the villages and farmlands belonging to predominantly Christians has added to the religious tensions. ?
Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB)
On 13 September 2017, clashes between the military and IPOB occurred in the southeast of the country, especially in Abia state, where the IPOB feared the military was sent on an operation to arrest IPOB leaders. Clashes occurred within the commercial city of Aba and resulted in a number of fatalities.? On 14 September, IPOB members killed a police sergeant at Oyigbo Junction in Port Harcourt, Rivers state and burnt down the police station. On 15 September the Defence Headquarters declared the IPOB a terrorist organisation, banning its activities, after its members clashed repeatedly with soldiers in Abia state. On 26 September, 60 members of IPOB involved in the clashes were arrested on terrorism charges. Additionally, in Plateau state, ethnic tensions between IPOB members and Hausas resulted in violent clashes over the incidents in Abia state. ??? ? On November 12, IPOB staged a demonstration despite the governmental ban, leading analysts to warn about possible violent and insecure outcomes.??