Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.80 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.70 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.80 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
Nigeria and Niger: Cholera outbreak
Insecurity stemming from crises in neighbouring countries impacts populations in Niger. In Diffa region, where a state of emergency has been in place since 2015, Boko Haram continues to carry out sporadic attacks on civilians and against the authorities, whilst around 168,000 Nigerian refugees have crossed the border seeking safety in Niger.?Cross-border violence and intercommunal tensions also affect Tillaberi and Tahoua regions, leading to significant population displacement. ?Since September 2018, the Burkina Faso border area has seen increasing attacks by jihadist armed groups against the local population and authorities, leading to States of Emergency declared in several departments. ?
INFORM measures Niger's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 6.7/10. Lack of coping capacity and vulnerability are of particular concern at 7.6/10 and 6.8/10 respectively.?
Around 400 civilians were killed over the past four weeks as a result of clashes in Gao region between the Cadre stratégique permanent - which brings together all the armed groups that signed the 2015 peace agreement - and the Islamic State in Greater Sahara. More than 17,600 people fled Inchinana, Azaragane, Anderamboukane and Tamalet in Mali towards Abala (Tillabéri region), Inkotayene, Intikane, Télémcès and Egerek (Tahoua region) in Niger. The displaced people are staying with relatives or in makeshift sites. Some 951,000 people in Tillabéri and 565,000 people in Tahoua need emergency food assistance as at March 2022. This influx of displaced people continues and risks putting more pressure on the limited resources available. Insecurity, poor road conditions, movement restrictions by the authorities, and the closure of public services considerably reduce humanitarian access in Tillabéri and Tahoua. Most urgent needs include water, food, health, protection, shelter and education.?
VERY High constraints
Humanitarian access constraints are still very high in Niger. The presence of non-state armed groups in the Tahoua and Tillabéri regions (in the border area with Burkina Faso and Mali), Diffa region, and Maradi region (at the border with Nigeria) makes these areas particularly difficult to access. Access to services for the population remains very limited in affected areas. The looting of health facilities and ambulance thefts, in addition to threats against health workers, have led to the closure of many health centres and hospitals.
Measures restricting freedom of movement related to the state of emergency imposed by the national authorities mainly in the Diffa, Tahoua, and Tillabéri regions continue to limit access to services. In Tillabéri, the ban on the use of motorcycles by local authorities in certain departments and communes remains a constraint for both the population and humanitarian organisations. The presence of armed groups influences the movement of humanitarian staff, who oftentimes need to pay fees to access territories. Local authorities do not allow access to certain communes of the Diffa region (Bosso, Gueskerou, Toumour) given numerous attacks by non-state armed groups, considerably reducing humanitarian access in the Lake Chad Basin.
Humanitarian activities are often suspended by local authorities, who restrict access to certain areas because of military operations against armed groups. The requirement for humanitarian organisations to be escorted by the army on all movements outside urban roads sometimes leads to the suspension of certain activities. Humanitarian access becomes particularly hampered during the rainy season (June–September) as a result of recurrent flooding, especially in the Maradi and Tillabéri regions.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Update from the October 2021 Risk Analysis
MEDIUM RISK LEVEL
An increase in attacks targeting civilians leads to displacement and further deterioration of humanitarian conditions in the Tillabéri region
The population created several self-defence militias following increased attacks targeting civilians in Tillabéri region and the intensification of tax collection by armed groups. The growing involvement of civilians in armed fighting resulted in the deaths of 69 civilians belonging to a self-defence militia in Banibangou department on 2 November 2021. They were hunting down armed men they accused of attacking their villages and stealing cattle. Despite calls from the president of the republic to rely on the army, this event reinforced the will of civilians to defend themselves.? Attacks by armed groups remain frequent, pushing the population to move. Regardless, the number of displaced people in the region remained stable at around 99,870 as at 31 January 2022. Return movements were the main reason for the stability of this figure.? Access to education in Tillabéri has particularly deteriorated since the increase in attacks. 579 schools closed at the end of 2021, up from 377 in 2020. The closures affected 53,500 children.? As at 1 October 2021, an estimated 600,000 people were at risk of food insecurity because of recurrent attacks by armed groups against farmers, forcing them to flee their fields. These attacks particularly affected Banibangou department, with more than 79,000 people at risk of food insecurity.? WASH needs remain very high, particularly because of the widespread practice of open defecation and the use of an unimproved water source as the main source of drinking.?
Food security: Conflict along the Lake Chad Basin, namely in Maradi, Tahoua, and Tillabéri regions, has limited households’ capacity to meet their food and nutrition needs. Floods during the 2020 rainy season destroyed or damaged crops, reducing the agricultural output. COVID-19 restrictions continue to limit seasonal migration, which is affecting livelihoods.
WASH: Lack of access to WASH infrastructure remains a concern for both displaced and local populations. Floods and disease outbreaks, especially cholera, are driving WASH needs across the country.
Protection: Protection incidents, including cattle theft, violence, kidnapping, and the presence of IEDs, continue to be reported in Diffa, Maradi, Tahoua, and Tillabéri regions, where armed groups are active. There are not enough services to respond to the population's GBV concerns, and access to these limited services is sometimes difficult. A lack of proper documentation and land rights disputes during displacement and return represent major protection concerns in Niger.?