• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 33,725,000 Total population [?]
  • 12,816,000 People affected [?]
  • 1,093,000 People displaced [?]
  • 2,092,000 People in Need [?]

Special Reports




Some areas of Mozambique are experiencing a humanitarian crisis as a result of the impact of multiple natural disasters and an armed insurgency that started in 2017 in the north of the country. Mozambique is particularly prone to natural hazards such as floods, cyclones, and drought. According to the Global Climate Risk Index, Mozambique ranked fifth worldwide as one of the countries most affected by extreme weather events in the last 20 years.? Tropical Storm Ana made landfall in Mozambique on 24 January and has affected 141,483 people. Zambezia, Nampula, and Tete provinces were the most affected, while Niassa, Sofala, and Cabo Delgado provinces were affected to a lesser extent.?

The armed insurgency that began in Cabo Delgado province in 2017 has also affected the neighbouring provinces of Niassa and Nampula. 1.3 million people need humanitarian assistance, and 735,000 are internally displaced because of violence. The humanitarian crisis deteriorated in 2020 when armed attacks by insurgents increased. Internal displacements increased from 90,000 in January 2020 to 668,000 in December 2020. The insurgency has also affected food security, with more than 932,000 people in Cabo Delgado province facing IPC 3 and above outcomes for the period November 2021 to March 2022.?

There are high levels of vulnerability among the people that have experienced multiple shocks. Sofala and Zambezia provinces have been affected by recurrent storms and cyclones, leaving communities little time to rebuild homes and recover their livelihoods. The IDP population in Cabo Delgado and Nampula provinces is particularly vulnerable to the impact of Tropical Storm Ana, since some of them have inadequate shelter and WASH facilities.?

INFORM measures Mozambique’s risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 7.2/10.?

Latest Developments


In 2023, northern Mozambique is facing a critical humanitarian situation, with at least two million people in Cabo Delgado, Nampula, and Niassa requiring life-saving and life-sustaining assistance and protection. These needs arise from the impact of armed conflict, violence, and insecurity in the area. The number of people in need has increased by 25% compared to 2022. More than half of those in need are children, and over 60% of affected adults are women. Nearly 1.7 million people are facing acute food insecurity because of violence and displacement. Those in need require protection, food, health services, education, WASH, shelter, and NFIs. ?

Humanitarian Access


High constraints

The access situation in Mozambique remains stable, with few recurring incidents of access constraints reported in the past six months. IDPs without civil documentation have continued to limit their own movement for fear of arrests and questioning by the authorities. IOM estimates that only 38% of IDPs have civil documentation in the country. As for the access of humanitarians to people in need, complex registration requirements for NGOs remain a significant constraint. Local NGOs are requested to have ten founders to be recognised as such. The insurgency in Cabo Delgado is also spilling over to Nampula province, and humanitarians are required consultation from the military to deliver aid to cyclone-affected areas in the province. In the past six months, checkpoints have been erected in Cabo Delgado along Metro-Ancuabe and N380 ring roads, and roads have occasionally been closed during active violence. During the wave of violence by non-state armed groups in Nampula in early September, the attacks on 2–6 September led to the destruction of health facilities and schools and the killing of civilians. Attacks in IDP sites or near IDP sites have led to the forced displacement of people away from services.  

Fuel scarcity and subsequent high prices also challenge the movement and delivery of humanitarian aid and assistance. During the research period, OCHA classified seven districts in Cabo Delgado with an estimated population of 302,000 as ‘hard to reach’.  

For more information, you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – December 2022



On 14 September 2022, the Ministry of Health of Mozambique declared an outbreak of cholera in the country, with the first confirmed case reported from Lago district, Niassa Province. The outbreak has been spreading since, and cases and fatalities are rising. As at 16 May 2023, a total of 10 out of 11 provinces of Mozambique were experiencing active cholera outbreaks, with 30,509 reported suspected cases and 131 fatalities. ?

Floods caused by Cyclone Freddy, compounded by the interruption of water, sanitation, and hygiene services, are the main drivers of the increase in cholera cases. Since 2017, cholera outbreaks have been observed in Mozambique throughout the hot and rainy season, making Mozambique cholera-endemic. The rainy season, running from November–March, has further spread the outbreak by increasing exposure to water contaminated by worsening sanitary conditions during excess water. Other existing public health concerns in the country include the impact of COVID-19 and polio, increasing WASH and healthcare needs, and the limited national response capacity. ?