Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.20 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
Mozambique: Conflict escalation in Cabo Delgado
Mozambique is exposed to extreme climatic conditions and hazards such as cyclones, storms, and flash floods. In addition, the southern region suffers from drought. The recurrence of these events has had detrimental effects on food security and nutrition nationwide. The country is also battling domestic insurgency in its northern province of Cabo Delgado, which is rich in liquified gas.?
In 2019, Mozambique was hit by two tropical cyclones, Cyclone Idai and Cyclone Kenneth, in the same season for the first time in recorded history. This resulted in widespread destruction and affected some 2 million people. As of March 2020, humanitarian assistance is provided to approximately 99,000 people across 73 resettlement sites in the provinces affected by the two cyclones.?
Cabo Delgado province has been affected by a suspected Islamist insurgency since October 2017, with violent attacks displacing up to 530,000 people, many of whom have been forced to move multiple times. Counter-attacks by the Government have led to human rights abuses. The existence of liquified gas in the area makes it a hub for exploration companies and foreign nationals, increasing security concerns in the region.?
13/01/2021: The current rain and cyclone season (October 2020-April 2021) in Mozambique has affected at least 112,646 people, according to local authorities. 63 people have died and an estimated 80 have been injured. Sofala and Manica provinces (central Mozambique) were hit by Tropical Storm Chalane on 30 December. On 8 January the National Emergency Operational Centre reported that more than 70,000 people have been affected by the storm. At least 475 classrooms were destroyed, affecting an estimated 57,000 students in the two provinces. Between 1 October and 6 January, the rainy season destroyed an estimated 1,115 classrooms and affected 124,700 students across Mozambique. Assessments are ongoing but needs are expected across all sectors. ?
04/12/2020: Displacement is on the rise in northern Cabo Delgado as attacks on civilian populations continue. Between 28 October and 25 November, over 45,000 people fled the northern district of Muidumbe due to attacks by (non-state) armed groups, pushing some people into situations of repeated displacement. Over 37,000 of the people fleeing Muidumbe travelled north to Mueda district. Some 5,000 moved south to Montepuez district and 3,000 travelled to the provincial capital Pemba by road. Nearly half of the displaced are children, 30% are women and 22% are men. Since the beginning of the conflict, over 144,000 displaced people are in hard-to-reach areas in Cabo Delgado due to insecurity. Among the main needs reported by displaced people are food, shelter, and non-food items. ?
12/11/2020: The overall security situation in Cabo Delgado is deteriorating: violence has escalated, with reports of at least 50 civilians killed by insurgents over 7-10 November, abductions of women and children have increased, and homes have been torched. In the second half of October, 219 boats carrying 11,200 IDPs arrived at a beach in Paquitequete, a densely populated district of Pemba, the provincial capital. Almost half of those arrivals are children, including 25 unaccompanied minors. Since 2017, the conflict has resulted in 712,000 people in need of humanitarian assistance and over 355,000 IDPs, 74% of whom (estimated 265,000 people) were displaced in 2020 alone.?
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The violent insurgency in Cabo Delgado continues to obstruct the effective delivery of and access to humanitarian aid in Mozambique. The conflict is largely localised, but the continually changing geographic boundaries of the disputed area and resultant shifts in authority and governance make the organisation of humanitarian aid or corridors problematic. Violence-related displacement can be seen both in the Cabo Delgado region and across the Tanzanian border, threatening regional security and the stability of humanitarian access. Even when it is delivered, humanitarian aid is often unevenly distributed, depending on who is in charge. The combination of administrative barriers placed by the Government of Mozambique on humanitarian organisations, COVID-19-related restrictions, and a general lack of accurate information regarding where humanitarian aid is needed makes access to humanitarian aid and access by humanitarian aid workers a challenge. The damage inflicted by cyclones Idai (March 2019) and Kenneth (April 2019) still requires humanitarian interventions, and the conflict in Cabo Delgado has further deteriorated existing infrastructure. COVID-19-related restriction measures are creating barriers to reaching people in need.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.