• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 20,402,000 Total population [?]
  • 11,712,000 People affected [?]
  • 1,140,000 People displaced [?]
  • 5,900,000 People in Need [?]

Special Reports


Special Reports


Special Reports




The humanitarian situation in Mali continues to deteriorate as conflict drives displacement and increased humanitarian needs, particularly in the regions bordering Burkina Faso and Niger. Direct confrontations between two rival militant groups, the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara and the Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims, have added a new dimension to the complex security situation in the country. Clashes between pastoralist farmers and nomadic herder communities over land and access to water points are common in central and northern regions, and the situation is aggravated by the limited access to resources and the presence of militias and armed groups.?

Insecurity has disrupted economic and trade activities, resulting in unreliable food availability in markets. It has also limited access to farmlands and markets, and disrupted normal pastoralist patterns, affecting livelihoods.?

Men are most affected by violent incidents (81% of which involve men and boys), as they are often targets for extrajudicial or retaliation killings, kidnapping, and forced recruitment. Women make up 52% of people in need in 2021. They are taking on increasing responsibilities within the family unit, often as heads of households, yet compared to men they have limited means or access to means to meet their families’ needs. Incidents that mostly affect women, such as sexual and gender-based violence, are underreported.? 
From 1 January to 31 March 2021, 421 human rights violations and abuses, which resulted in the deaths of 106 people, have been documented. The responsible for these abuses include armed groups, militias and community armed groups, and national and international armed forces. ?

The provision of services to the population is also affected by insecurity. 10% of health structures in the country are not operational. Around 2.5 million children in Mali are estimated to be outside of the education system, and around 1,595 schools are closed as a result of insecurity. Seasonal flooding and the occupation of schools by newly displaced people further affect education services. ?

Mali is currently undergoing a political transition period towards an elected government and parliament, following a military coup on 24 May 2021 – the second in nine months. General elections are scheduled for February 2022. ?


Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.

Access Constraints


EXTREME constraints

Humanitarian access remains extremely constrained as a result of the activity of armed groups in the northern, central, and southern regions. The denial of access to essential services through the confinement and isolation of villages and the restriction of people’s movements by armed groups have become particularly common in the Mopti and Ségou regions. The recurrent establishment of roadblocks, the sabotage of telephone networks, and the destruction of road infrastructure by armed groups, as in the case of the bridge connecting Dogofry commune and Farabougou village, block the delivery of humanitarian assistance. Some NGOs are unable to run activities related to gender-based violence and child protection as a result of the conditions imposed by armed groups in the implementation of humanitarian activities in areas under their influence. Attacks on humanitarian personnel and their equipment, which deprive thousands of people of essential items, are frequent. Over the past six months, at least 33 aid workers have been kidnapped, particularly in the regions of Gao, Mopti, Ségou, and Tombouctou.

Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.

Key Concerns


Protection: Protection is a priority for populations affected by insecurity, particularly in the northern and central regions. Protection incidents include attacks on civilians, targeting of civilian infrastructure, SGBV, child exploitation and forced recruitment, and the presence of IEDs.?

Food security: The food security of vulnerable households in central Mali is expected to deteriorate from Stressed (IPC Phase 2) to Crisis (IPC Phase 3) levels between June–September 2021, because of the pastoral and agricultural lean seasons, insecurity, and the predicted continued effects of COVID-19 restrictions?

WASH: Population movements and armed group activity continue to stress Mali's WASH infrastructure. Newly displaced populations and their host communities often share the same insufficient infrastructures. This leads to increased cases of malnutrition and communicable diseases. Drought and floods increase the need for WASH support.?

Information Gaps and Needs


Limited access to the northern and central regions makes it difficult to assess exact needs.

There is limited or lack of information on access constraints for the population to humanitarian assistance and basic social services.

Conflict in the Sahel


In 2019 the border area shared by Burkina Faso, Niger, and Mali, known as Liptako Gourma, saw a rise in intercommunal violence and jihadist activities. Across the region, security incidents were recorded on an almost daily basis, increasingly resulting in civilian casualties. Armed groups have continued to expand their frontlines while authorities struggle to contain the crisis, including widespread displacement and civil discontent.

Read the full narrative here.