Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.40 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.40 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.40 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Mali: Violence in Ménaka and Gao regions
CrisisInSight: Global Risk Report
Humanitarian Access Overview
L’accès humanitaire au sahel central: Scénarios
Central Sahel: Humanitarian access and civil-military coordi...
The humanitarian situation in Mali continues to deteriorate as conflict drives displacement and increased humanitarian needs, particularly in the regions bordering Burkina Faso and Niger. Direct confrontations between two rival militant groups, the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara and the Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims, have added a new dimension to the complex security situation in the country. Clashes between pastoralist farmers and nomadic herder communities over land and access to water points are common in central and northern regions, and the situation is aggravated by the limited access to resources and the presence of militias and armed groups.?
Insecurity has disrupted economic and trade activities, resulting in unreliable food availability in markets. It has also limited access to farmlands and markets, and disrupted normal pastoralist patterns, affecting livelihoods.?
Men are most affected by violent incidents (81% of which involve men and boys), as they are often targets for extrajudicial or retaliation killings, kidnapping, and forced recruitment. Women make up 52% of people in need in 2021. They are taking on increasing responsibilities within the family unit, often as heads of households, yet compared to men they have limited means or access to means to meet their families’ needs. Incidents that mostly affect women, such as sexual and gender-based violence, are underreported.?
From 1 January to 31 March 2021, 421 human rights violations and abuses, which resulted in the deaths of 106 people, have been documented. The responsible for these abuses include armed groups, militias and community armed groups, and national and international armed forces. ?
The provision of services to the population is also affected by insecurity. 10% of health structures in the country are not operational. Around 2.5 million children in Mali are estimated to be outside of the education system, and around 1,595 schools are closed as a result of insecurity. Seasonal flooding and the occupation of schools by newly displaced people further affect education services. ?
Mali is currently undergoing a political transition period towards an elected government and parliament, following a military coup on 24 May 2021 – the second in nine months. General elections are scheduled for February 2022. ?
30/11/2022: On 21 November, at least 11 people were killed in an attack by an unidentified armed group on an IDP site in Gounzoureye commune (Gao region). Shelters and food stocks were burnt, and livestock looted. Based on previous assessments in Gao, food, NFIs and protection are likely to be the most urgent needs.?
23/11/2022: Around 11,000 people have fled to Kidal since May following increased clashes between rival armed groups and attacks on civilians in Gao and Menaka regions. In recent weeks an estimated 8,700 people arrived in Kidal region. The newly displaced are with the host community and in IDP camps. The influx of displaced people, who arrive with livestock, puts further pressure on limited resources as food, water, and livelihoods were already under strain for residents. The low rainfall recorded during the rainy season and the early drying up of wells has considerably reduced grazing areas, while livestock is one of the main means of subsistence for local populations. The quantity of water available in the groundwater is considered to be lower than it was at this time last year. Tensions over access to water between displaced populations and host communities, who live around existing water points, are likely to arise should the influx of IDPs increase in the coming weeks.?
23/11/2022: The number of IDPs in Mali increased from 350,000 in January to over 440,000 in September. Mopti, Tombouctou, Gao, Ségou and Ménaka regions have recorded the highest numbers of IDPs. For displaced people and host communities, armed groups’ activity has increased humanitarian needs, which include healthcare, WASH, food, protection, shelter and education.?
very high constraints
Mali faced Very High humanitarian access constraints in the past six months, scoring 4/5 in ACAPS Humanitarian Access Index. The humanitarian access situation has been improving, with no reports of humanitarians being targeted by armed groups, and access to people in need generally was possible. Temporary suspensions due to armed group activity or military operations do not usually last long; however, armed group activity has been expanding across the country, with various impacts on access.
For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – July 2022.
Total number of conflict-related fatalities per year
Source : ACLED - https://www.acleddata.com/data/
Protection: Protection is a priority for populations affected by insecurity, particularly in the northern and central regions. Protection incidents include attacks on civilians, targeting of civilian infrastructure, SGBV, child exploitation and forced recruitment, and the presence of IEDs.?
Food security: The food security of vulnerable households in central Mali is expected to deteriorate from Stressed (IPC Phase 2) to Crisis (IPC Phase 3) levels between June–September 2021, because of the pastoral and agricultural lean seasons, insecurity, and the predicted continued effects of COVID-19 restrictions?
WASH: Population movements and armed group activity continue to stress Mali's WASH infrastructure. Newly displaced populations and their host communities often share the same insufficient infrastructures. This leads to increased cases of malnutrition and communicable diseases. Drought and floods increase the need for WASH support.?
Information Gaps and Needs
Limited access to the northern and central regions makes it difficult to assess exact needs.
There is limited or lack of information on access constraints for the population to humanitarian assistance and basic social services.