Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.60 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.80 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.70 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger: Vulnerability to COVID-19 cont...
The security situation continues to worsen as violence spreads from the north to the more populated central regions of the country. The presence and activities of armed groups not included in the 2015 agreement continues to influence the security situation. Clashes between Dogon (pastoralist farmers) and Fulani (nomadic herders) communities over land, access to water points, and grievances complicated by resource access, have also increased in central and northern regions, fuelled by the presence of Islamist armed groups.?
Insecurity has disrupted economic and trade activities, resulting in the unreliable availability of food in the markets. Prices have increased, especially in the Mopti, Timbuktu, and Gao regions. Risks of banditry and attacks along commercial roads have deterred traders. Limited access to farmlands and the disruption of normal transhumance patterns due to insecurity have affected livelihoods. Although food production is expected to improve overall in the country due to an adequate level of rainfall in 2018, populations affected by the conflict remain food insecure. IEDs are commonly used by armed groups in northern and central Mali to target Malian or MINUSMA military convoys, and have affected a growing number of civilians. Humanitarian access is constrained by conflict and insecurity, especially in Mali's central regions.?
INFORM measures Mali's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 6.4/10. Hazard exposure, a lack of coping capacity, and vulnerability are all at concerning levels: 6.1/10, 6.9/10 and 6.1/10 respectively.
The Faladie IDP camp, located in the capital Bamako, was destroyed by fire on 28 April. The fire reportedly started from the burning of a pile of rubbish. Residents fled the burning camp and no casualties have been reported. The camp was home to around 1,000 people, mostly Fulani displaced from central Mali, living in tents and huts on a landfill site since December 2018. Shelter and NFI are among the most likely needs, though the current location of the IDPs is not known.?
19/02/2020: The village of Ogassagou (Mopti region) was attacked by an unidentified group on 14 February who killed at least 30 civilians. This is the second attack the village experienced within less than a year following an attack in March 2019 that killed about 160 people. No mass population movement has been observed as of now.?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
Very high constraints
Humanitarian access is challenged by poor infrastructure; the continuous presence of Islamist armed groups and military operations in the northern and central regions; intercommunal conflict in Mopti region, and an increase in incidents targeting aid actors. 70 security incidents involving NGOs were registered over the last reporting period, with 10 aid workers kidnapped and five injured. In some areas, looting of humanitarian organisations is common, with an average of six incidents a month causing reduction or suspension of operations. Further, the State has been accused of having an anti-Fulani bias which may impede Fulanis’ access to assistance. Improvised explosive devices also pose a danger: The United Nations Mine Action Service has reported 138 incidents since the start of 2019. Northern and central regions remain the most difficult to access.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Total number of conflict-related fatalities per year
Source : ACLED - https://www.acleddata.com/data/
Protection is a priority for populations affected by insecurity, particularly in the north and central regions.?
Food security and nutrition is of particular concern in the regions affected by floods, drought and conflict, especially in northern and central Mali.?
Health needs are high as access to services is poor and disease outbreaks, like ongoing measles, yellow fever, and dengue outbreaks, cause major needs and risk spreading.? Since February 2020, there is an outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Mopti district.?
Education has been restricted due to ongoing insecurity, with a total of 920 schools closed as of June 2019, just before the start of the school year.?
Information Gaps and Needs
Limited access to the northern and central regions makes it difficult to assess exact needs.
There is limited or lack of information on access constraints for the population to humanitarian assistance and basic social services.
Conflict in the Sahel
In 2019 the border area shared by Burkina Faso, Niger, and Mali, known as Liptako Gourma, saw a rise in intercommunal violence and jihadist activities. Across the region, security incidents were recorded on an almost daily basis, increasingly resulting in civilian casualties. Armed groups have continued to expand their frontlines while authorities struggle to contain the crisis, including widespread displacement and civil discontent.