Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.80 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.70 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.90 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
L’accès humanitaire au sahel central: Scénarios
Central Sahel: Humanitarian access and civil-military coordi...
Humanitarian Access Overview
Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger: Vulnerability to COVID-19 cont...
The security situation continues to worsen as violence spreads from the north to the more populated central regions of the country. The presence and activities of armed groups not included in the 2015 agreement continues to influence the security situation. Clashes between pastoralist farmers and nomadic herder communities over land, access to water points, and grievances complicated by resource access, have also increased in central and northern regions, fuelled by the presence of Islamist armed groups.?
Insecurity has disrupted economic and trade activities, resulting in the unreliable availability of food in the markets. It has also limited access to farmlands and disrupted normal transhumance patterns, affecting livelihoods. Vulnerable households in Gao and Mopti are expected to remain in Stressed (IPC Phase 2) level food insecurity through May 2021.?
Improvised explosives are commonly used by armed groups in northern and central Mali to target Malian or MINUSMA military convoys, and have affected a growing number of civilians. Humanitarian access is constrained by conflict and insecurity, especially in Mali's central regions. 23% of the health structures in the North and Central regions are not operational, having experienced 18 attacks throughout 2019.?
INFORM measures Mali's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 6.4/10. Hazard exposure, a lack of coping capacity, and vulnerability are all at concerning levels: 6.3/10, 6.7/10 and 6.1/10 respectively.?
Child protection concerns have increased in Mali due to conflict and COVID-19. School closures have made children more vulnerable to trafficking, child labour, gender-based violence, and recruitment. Child recruitment by armed groups was higher in the first half of 2020 (230 cases) than in all of 2019 (215 cases). Around 6,000 children work in mine sites. ?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
Very high constraints
Humanitarian constraints in Mali remain very high but stable, although there are concerns over uncertain political and conflict developments following the 18 August coup. Poor road infrastructure, the presence of armed groups, intercommunal conflict, and military operations are challenging humanitarian access, especially in the central and northern regions. The Ma-lian state has a weak presence in many parts of the country, contributing to the proliferation of ethnic self-defence militias and intercommunal violence. Armed groups sometimes surround villages and cut them off from the rest of the country. Safety for humanitarian workers is a challenge; one aid worker was killed and 18 kidnapped between April–September 2020. Hu-manitarian operations are sometimes temporarily suspended because of insecurity. Diversion of aid has also been reported this year. Both armed groups and armed forces man check-points, limiting movement. Infrastructure damaged because of flooding in the rainy season and low-quality clay roads have affected humanitarian interventions and the population’s abi-lity to access aid.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Total number of conflict-related fatalities per year
Source : ACLED - https://www.acleddata.com/data/
Food security and nutrition is of particular concern in the regions affected by floods, drought and conflict, especially in northern and central Mali.?
Health needs are high as access to services is poor and the country is experiencing ongoing measles, yellow fever, and dengue outbreaks. COVID-19 places an additional strain on the country’s health infrastructure. Cases are concentrated in Bamako, and Timbuktu and Mopti regions. ?
Protection is a priority for populations affected by insecurity, particularly in the North and Central regions. Protection incidents include attacks on civilians, sexual and gender-based violence (SBVG), child exploitation and the presence of IEDs.?
Information Gaps and Needs
Limited access to the northern and central regions makes it difficult to assess exact needs.
There is limited or lack of information on access constraints for the population to humanitarian assistance and basic social services.
Conflict in the Sahel
In 2019 the border area shared by Burkina Faso, Niger, and Mali, known as Liptako Gourma, saw a rise in intercommunal violence and jihadist activities. Across the region, security incidents were recorded on an almost daily basis, increasingly resulting in civilian casualties. Armed groups have continued to expand their frontlines while authorities struggle to contain the crisis, including widespread displacement and civil discontent.