Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.40 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.30 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.60 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.5.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
L’accès humanitaire au sahel central: Scénarios
Central Sahel: Humanitarian access and civil-military coordi...
Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger: Vulnerability to COVID-19 cont...
The humanitarian situation in Mali continues to deteriorate as conflict drives displacement and increased humanitarian needs, particularly in the regions bordering Burkina Faso and Niger. Direct confrontations between two rival militant groups, the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara and the Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims, have added a new dimension to the complex security situation in the country. Clashes between pastoralist farmers and nomadic herder communities over land and access to water points are common in central and northern regions, and the situation is aggravated by the limited access to resources and the presence of militias and armed groups.?
Insecurity has disrupted economic and trade activities, resulting in unreliable food availability in markets. It has also limited access to farmlands and markets, and disrupted normal pastoralist patterns, affecting livelihoods.?
Men are most affected by violent incidents (81% of which involve men and boys), as they are often targets for extrajudicial or retaliation killings, kidnapping, and forced recruitment. Women make up 52% of people in need in 2021. They are taking on increasing responsibilities within the family unit, often as heads of households, yet compared to men they have limited means or access to means to meet their families’ needs. Incidents that mostly affect women, such as sexual and gender-based violence, are underreported.?
From 1 January to 31 March 2021, 421 human rights violations and abuses, which resulted in the deaths of 106 people, have been documented. The responsible for these abuses include armed groups, militias and community armed groups, and national and international armed forces. ?
The provision of services to the population is also affected by insecurity. 10% of health structures in the country are not operational. Around 2.5 million children in Mali are estimated to be outside of the education system, and around 1,595 schools are closed as a result of insecurity. Seasonal flooding and the occupation of schools by newly displaced people further affect education services. ?
Mali is currently undergoing a political transition period towards an elected government and parliament, following a military coup on 24 May 2021 – the second in nine months. General elections are scheduled for February 2022. ?
Since July, the security situation has deteriorated in the cercles of Niono (Segou region) and Djenne (Mopti region) due to attacks targeting civilians by the Katiba Macina and clashes between this armed group and the Dozos, traditional hunters. Clashes between Dozos and Katiba Macina are common during the harvest period and disrupt the livelihoods of farmers, merchants, and pastoralists. Market supply is affected, with shortage of essential goods such as sugar reported. At least 28,000 people displaced by conflict were recorded in Niono as at 11 August; they are sheltering in public buildings or are hosted by their relatives. Presence of the Katiba Macina, who control areas of central Mali and restrict movement, have impacted many villages in Segou and Mopti. Protection needs are high and human rights abuses have been reported by all parties to the conflict. Humanitarian access has been constrained by insecurity.?
Humanitarian access is deteriorating as a result of intensified attacks by armed groups in the northern, central, and southern regions. Intercommunal conflicts and the destruction of transportation infrastructure have considerably reduced the ability of the population to access humanitarian assistance. Growing insecurity in Gao, Kidal, Ménaka, Mopti, Ségou, and Tombouctou regions, including threats and attacks against education infrastructure and personnel, resulted in the forced interruption of educational activities in schools and limited access to basic services. Non-state armed groups hamper the implementation of humanitarian activities in areas under their influence, especially in the cercles of Ansongo and Intilit (Gao region) and in Boni, Mondoro, Tenenkou, and Youwarou (Mopti region). At checkpoints, humanitarians are at times subjected to irregular and unannounced controls, harassment, and temporary detentions. Between January–May 2021, a number of attacks against humanitarian workers were reported, resulting in kidnapping and injuries in Gao, Mopti, and Tombouctou. Cases of confiscation of humanitarian aid are also reported. Poor road conditions and destroyed bridges intensify access constraints during the rainy season (mid-May–September), making certain areas, such as Menaka and Ségou regions, temporarily inaccessible.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Total number of conflict-related fatalities per year
Source : ACLED - https://www.acleddata.com/data/
Protection: Protection is a priority for populations affected by insecurity, particularly in the northern and central regions. Protection incidents include attacks on civilians, targeting of civilian infrastructure, SGBV, child exploitation and forced recruitment, and the presence of IEDs.?
Food security: The food security of vulnerable households in central Mali is expected to deteriorate from Stressed (IPC Phase 2) to Crisis (IPC Phase 3) levels between June–September 2021, because of the pastoral and agricultural lean seasons, insecurity, and the predicted continued effects of COVID-19 restrictions?
WASH: Population movements and armed group activity continue to stress Mali's WASH infrastructure. Newly displaced populations and their host communities often share the same insufficient infrastructures. This leads to increased cases of malnutrition and communicable diseases. Drought and floods increase the need for WASH support.?
Information Gaps and Needs
Limited access to the northern and central regions makes it difficult to assess exact needs.
There is limited or lack of information on access constraints for the population to humanitarian assistance and basic social services.
Conflict in the Sahel
In 2019 the border area shared by Burkina Faso, Niger, and Mali, known as Liptako Gourma, saw a rise in intercommunal violence and jihadist activities. Across the region, security incidents were recorded on an almost daily basis, increasingly resulting in civilian casualties. Armed groups have continued to expand their frontlines while authorities struggle to contain the crisis, including widespread displacement and civil discontent.