Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.90 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.1.70 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.1.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Madagascar: Food insecurity crisis in the Grand Sud regions
Madagascar is highly exposed to natural hazards such as cyclones, floods, and drought because of its location in the southwestern Indian Ocean basin. In addition, high levels of poverty, dependence on rain-fed agriculture, poor water availability, and inadequate infrastructure have reduced people’s resilience to natural hazards.?
The Grand Sud (Androy, Anosy, and Atsimo-Andrefana regions) and the eastern regions of Atsimo-Atsinana and Vatovavy Fitovinany have been experiencing drought for 40 years. The worst drought hit the country in 2019 and caused a food insecurity crisis. Between November–December 2021, around 37% of the total population (1.6 million people) faced Crisis food insecurity levels (IPC Phase 3) or worse. Besides the prolonged drought and reduced crop production in the 2020–2021 harvest season, the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on food prices also contributed to high levels of food insecurity in the regions. ?
Floods, landslides, and tropical storms are common in Madagascar. Between mid-January and mid-March 2022, five tropical cyclones and storms hit Madagascar: Ana, Batsirai, Dumako, Emnati, and Gombe. More than 960,000 people have been affected by the 2022 cyclone season, which runs between November–March. More than 60,000 hectares of rice fields were flooded twice, which will likely result in a below-average harvest between April–July.?
INFORM measures Madagascar's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 5.1/10.?
The food security situation in Madagascar is predicted to deteriorate during the peak of the lean season, from November 2022 to March 2023. Some 2.23 million people are projected to be severely food insecure, with 252,000 in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and 1.97 million in Crisis (IPC Phase 3). People in Grand Sude-Est still need assistance to recover from tropical cyclones Emnati and Batsirai that struck the area in February 2022 and significantly damaged crops, cash crops (coffee, cloves, pepper) and rice fields, resulting in persistent needs for food assistance and restoration of livelihoods. A year-over-year increase in malnutrition rates among children and pregnant and lactating women was noted from January-October 2022 in districts impacted by the cyclones. In Madagascar's Grand Sud and Grand Sud Est, 479,000 children are projected to suffer from acute malnutrition between May 2022 and April 2023. Food, healthcare, shelter, and mechanisms to restore livelihoods are urgently needed. ?
Food: More than 1.6 million people are experiencing Crisis food insecurity levels (IPC Phase 3) or worse. Vulnerable people face challenges in terms of food access and availability because of low production, lack of income sources, and severe market disruptions caused by COVID-19 restriction measures.?
Health: People’s access to health services is challenging. Over 60% of the population lives more than 5km away from health centres. Some communities live in very remote areas without roads or communication. Healthcare facilities in some areas are facing a lack of drugs, medical supplies, and health personnel.?
WASH: Water levels are continuously depleting because of drought, increasing the difficulty of water extraction and trucking. Water prices increased by 10–15 times the average in 2021, driving people to resort to unsafe water for drinking and cooking. ?
Nutrition: More than 740,000 people, including 500,000 children, need nutrition services in the Grand Sud because of food insecurity. In the Grand Sud, moderate acute malnutrition prevalence in children between 6–59 months old was 6.1% in November 2021, and severe acute malnutrition was 1.5%.?