• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 634,000 People displaced [?]
  • 849 Fatalities reported [?]
  • 348,000 People in Need [?]



Libya has long been both a migrant destination as well as a transit point for migration to Europe via the Central Mediterranean route. Despite the civil war that broke out in 2011, Libya continues to receive a significant number of migrant arrivals from African and Middle Eastern countries.?The instability brought about by the Libyan civil war has resulted in migrants who have remained in Libya living in dire conditions, and at constant risk of abduction, arbitrary arrest, and detention. As at October 2020, there were almost 3,200 migrants held in detention centres across Libya, with many experiencing overcrowding, lack of access to services, sexual abuse, forced labour, and torture.?

As at October 2020, there were over 574,000 migrants from more than 43 countries in Libya, 304,000 of whom are in need of humanitarian assistance. The number of migrants in Libya has been declining since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in March and continues to decline, but at a slower rate compared to the last three periods of IOM data collection for March–April, May–June, and July–August. Overall, an estimated 80,000 migrants have left Libya since the beginning of the pandemic, mainly to neighbouring countries. The economic downturn – including plummeting income-generating opportunities for migrant workers – tightened security controls, and mobility restrictions related to COVID-19 are among the factors that have likely contributed to the number of migrants leaving Libya.?

Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.

Key Priorities


Protection: Grave human rights violations by state and non-state actors including armed groups with links to either government. Violations include sexual violence, torture, unlawful killings, extortion, abduction and kidnapping, slavery, and arbitrary detention. ?

Health care: Over 250,000 migrants are in need of healthcare assistance. Refugees and migrants experience assorted access barriers including discrimination, difficulties paying medical expenses, lack of transportation, and distance to medical facilities. ?

Food security: Some 94,000 migrants are in need of food assistance. High food prices and insufficient financial means result in negative coping mechanisms such as skipping meals or going a whole day without food. Single households with children and migrants who have recently arrived in Libya appear to experience more difficulties accessing food. ?

Shelter: Shelter needs among migrants are high. Data from August–October 2020 showed that 39% of migrants across Libya live in severely overcrowded conditions, with more than six people to one room. 96% reported having undocumented lease agreements, putting them at constant risk of eviction.?