• Crisis Severity ?
    3.4
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    3.9
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    3.1
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    3.4
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    3.0
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 710,000 People displaced [?]
  • 819 Fatalities reported [?]
  • 710,000 People in Need [?]

Overview

23/02/2022

Libya has long been both a migrant destination and a transit point for migration to Europe via the Central Mediterranean route. Despite the conflict that broke out in 2011, Libya continues to receive a significant number of migrant arrivals from African and Middle Eastern countries. The instability brought about by the Libyan crisis has resulted in migrants who have remained in Libya living in dire conditions, in need of humanitarian assistance, and at constant risk of abduction, arbitrary arrest, and detention. As at 7 November 2021, there were over 6,100 migrants held in detention centres across Libya, with many experiencing overcrowding, lack of access to services, sexual abuse, forced labour, and torture.?

As at the end of November 2021, there were over 621,000 migrants from more than 40 countries in Libya, 232,000 of whom are in need of humanitarian assistance. The number of migrants in Libya remains lower than pre-pandemic levels. Most migrants come from other countries in Africa, mainly from Niger (24%), Egypt (17%), Sudan (15%), Chad (13%), and Nigeria (6%). ?

 

People are migrating because of conflict in their countries and for better economic and social opportunities in Europe. Migrants attempting to cross to Europe are at risk of being stopped by Libyan coast guards at sea and returned to Libya; most of them are detained after being stopped. The numbers of returned migrants are showing an upward trend over the last three years. More than 32,400 migrants were stopped at sea and returned to Libya in 2021, compared to almost 11,900 in 2020 and over 9,200 in 2019. ?

Latest Developments

19/08/2021

No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.

Key Priorities

23/02/2022

Protection: About 200,000 migrants and refugees are estimated to be in need of protection assistance in 2022. They are facing grave human rights violations by state and non-state actors, including armed groups with links to political forces. Violations include sexual violence, torture, unlawful killings, extortion, abduction and kidnapping, slavery, and arbitrary detention. Migrants in detention centres are most in need of protection assistance. ?

Health care: Over 230,000 migrants and refugees are projected to be in need of healthcare assistance in 2022. Refugees and migrants experience several access barriers, including discrimination, difficulties paying medical expenses, lack of transportation, and distance to medical facilities.?

Food security: Around 122,000 migrants and refugees are projected to be in need of food assistance in 2022. High food prices and insufficient financial means result in negative coping mechanisms, such as skipping meals. Single households with children and migrants who have recently arrived in Libya appear to experience more difficulties accessing food.?

Shelter and NFI: Around 397,000 people (including migrants and refugees) are projected to be in need of shelter and NFI assistance in 2022, particularly those living in Aljfara, Alkufra, Almarj, Benghazi, Misrata, Sirte, Tobruk, and Tripoli regions, because of the high number of displaced people and migrants. Migrants and refugees are more likely to be living in overcrowded conditions and have undocumented lease agreements, putting them at constant risk of eviction.?