Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.80 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.90 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.20 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Libya: Escalation of conflict
Civil war since 2014 has generated shortages of food, fuel, water, medical supplies and electricity, and reduced access to healthcare and public services. Multiple parties are fighting for control of the country. Libya is divided among two governments: the House of Representatives (HOR) based in eastern Libya and a UN-backed Government of National Accord (GNA) based in Tripoli. Both governments rely on the support of militias, and alliances are subject to local territorial, political and economic interests. The Libyan National Army (LNA), a mix of tribal or regional-based armed groups allied with the HOR, is another major stakeholder to the conflict. ?
Insecurity has greatly limited humanitarian access and hindered the planning and delivery of humanitarian assistance. Healthcare is limited by lack of medical staff, structural damage, and shortages of medicines. Attacks on medical personnel and facilities are frequently reported, often leading to suspension of services. ?Violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, including attacks against civilians, extrajudicial killings, enforced disappearance, and torture, are widespread and committed by all parties to the conflict. As of May 2019, Libya counts over 666,700 migrants and refugees, who are particularly vulnerable to the violence. ?
13/08: An airstrike on a townhall in Murzuq, southwestern Libya, on 5 August killed at least 42 people and wounded 60 more, 30 of whom are in critical condition. As of 12 August, at least 4,050 people, including 250 migrants, have been displaced following the deteriorating security situation in Murzuq since the beginning of August. People in the region are in need of food, WASH and health assistance. The attack was carried out by forces allied to the Libyan National Army (LNA) who claim they had targeted Chadian opposition fighters; a term often used to refer to the Tubu tribesmen opposing the LNA. LNA forces took control of Murzuq early this year during a military campaign in the southern region of Libya. However, since the offensive on Tripoli that started in April, most LNA forces have moved to the northwest of Libya. This created a power vacuum which has seemingly led to an increase in insecurity and instability in the region. Tribal clashes between groups supporting and opposing LNA-commander Khalifa Haftar have caused several casualties in the last couple of weeks. The attack in Murzuq indicates that the conflict in Tripoli may be expanding to other regions in Libya. At the end of July, attacks were carried out on airbases in Misrata and Jufra by LNA and Government of National Accord (GNA) forces respectively causing material damage only.?
Very High constraints
Insecurity throughout the country continues to hamper access. The implementation of humanitarian activities remains unpredictable due to multiple factors including UXO and IED contamination, threats of kidnapping of international personnel, proliferation of armed groups with no clear chain of command, and periodic escalation of violence. Armed groups frequently target aid workers and health facilities. Access to detention centres remains very limited. Lack of a unified government perpetuates a volatile administrative environment regarding visas and other requirements to implement activities in Libya.
Since 4 April conflict has escalated in Tripoli, severely restricting humanitarian access to the capital. Civilians and detained migrants close to the frontline cannot leave due to the fighting intensity. Armed groups have reportedly denied emergency service workers access to areas with civilians in need. Three aid workers have been killed and one injured.
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Conflict in Tripoli
In April 2019 conflict between the LNA and the opposing GNA escalated after Khalifa Haftar, commander of the LNA, announced an offensive on Tripoli where the GNA is based. Fighting in and around the capital Tripoli is affecting 1.5 million people. ?Clashes between the LNA, the GNA and their respective allied forces have caused the displacement of over 100,000 people and a number of civilian casualties. Disproportionate and indiscriminate use of explosive weapons have raised grave protection concerns. Infrastructure, including water and power facilities, has been damaged. Severe movement restrictions have impacted civilian access to services, and humanitarian operations. ?
Migrants and refugees in Tripoli have been particularly impacted by the conflict due to their vulnerable status. Detained migrants close to the frontline have been trapped, sometimes without access to basic supplies. ?LNA fighters have indiscriminately shot at detained migrants.?There are reports that armed groups running detention centres are recruiting migrants to support militias aligned with the GNA by moving and loading weapons, cleaning cars impacted by violence, and taking part in the fighting. ?
Protection 490,000 people are exposed to physical harm and human rights violations. Migrants are particularly exposed to violence by Libyan security forces, militias, smuggling networks and criminal gangs. ?
Health Libya is struggling with an overstretched and underdeveloped healthcare system. Healthcare facilities are unable to provide sufficient care to the 554,000 people in the whole of Libya in critical need of healthcare assistance because of the poor quality of services, low capacity of the workforce and shortages of essential drugs and supplies. ?