Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.80 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.60 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.20 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
Libya: Humanitarian situation in detention centres
Libya has been in conflict since 2011. The Libyan Political Dialogue Forum nominated a new interim executive authority in February 2021, with the mandate to form a new government, start a national reconciliation process, and organise elections. Elections, originally scheduled for 24 December 2021, were postponed because of inadequacies in the electoral legislation and challenges and appeals related to the eligibility of candidates, with no agreed new date. Although the UN Security Council imposed an arm embargo on Libya, and troop withdrawals and foreign fighter repatriation were at the centre of the ceasefire agreement, some foreign armed groups or forces and armed mercenaries remained in the country. This challenges the full implementation of the ceasefire agreement and security across the country. ?
Instability has led to mass displacement and left 800,000 people in need of humanitarian assistance. As at 30 September 2021, there were around 200,000 IDPs (19% in Benghazi, 18% in Tripoli, and 16% in Misrata cities) and over 648,000 returnees in the country. Returns continue to be hampered by the presence of unexploded explosive ordnance (mostly in the southern neighbourhoods of Tripoli), damage to civilian infrastructure, and protection risks.?
Civilians are affected by the use of heavy weapons in residential areas and violations of international humanitarian and human rights law, including executions, unlawful killings, abductions, gender-based violence, and other forms of abuse. Moderate access constraints hamper aid delivery, while indiscriminate violence targets health, water, and education infrastructure. COVID-19 restrictions have hindered Libyans’ and migrants’ access to services and livelihoods. ?
The country hosted over 621,000 migrants as at 30 November 2021, including over 42,000 registered asylum seekers and refugees as at December 2021. Libya is a transition area for some migrants en route to Europe. Authorities regularly intercept migrants at sea and transfer them to formal and informal detention centres in Libya. As at the end of October 2021, over 6,300 migrants and refugees were being detained in official detention centres. Migrants are exposed to severe protection violations, especially in detention centres, and have identified health, accommodation, NFIs, and WASH as their main needs.?
In 2022, there were more than 150,000 migrants with an irregular status across Libya in need of humanitarian assistance, including 3,000 facing acute needs. Many leave their countries (mostly Egypt, Niger, and Sudan) because of insecurity or worsening economic conditions. The lack of legal status and recognition of their refugee status often expose migrants to severe protection violations and put them at risk of human trafficking, sexual and gender-based violence, family separation, and arbitrary detention. Protection concerns are especially high in official and unofficial detention centres, where humanitarian organisations have limited access. People suffer from poor living conditions while staying in overcrowded detention centres that sometimes exceed their official capacity. Aside from protection needs, the needs of migrants in Libya include food, healthcare services, accommodation, NFIs, cash assistance, and WASH services.?
VERY HIGH constraints
Libya has an overall score of 4.00 on the Humanitarian Access Index.
While the situation in Libya has largely remained the same during the past six months, humanitarian access has deteriorated. Different authorities continue to arbitrarily arrest migrants with and irregular status, holding them in official and unofficial detention centres that lack services. Different authorities or armed forces often do not allow humanitarian organisations to access detention centres, making it very difficult to gather information on the conditions, needs, and numbers of migrants in both official and non-official detention centres. Because these migrants lack documentation, it is challenging for them to access services (including legal services), assistance, and overall aid.
Bureaucratic and administrative restrictions continue to challenge the access of humanitarian responders to the affected population across Libya. The registration process for humanitarian organisations is complicated and time-consuming, with recently reported increased scrutiny on activities hindering humanitarian operations. Despite an improvement in the issuance of visas for aid workers between January–June, there was a reported lack of clarity regarding the process and needed time to renew visas. Entry permits allowing humanitarian staff to operate across the country are valid for only short periods and require constant renewal. Financial constraints have also been reported. There are limits on the amounts of cash humanitarian organisations can withdraw from certain banks, and they need authorisations from intermediary banks for international transfers, resulting in shortages of money required to run humanitarian operations.
For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – July 2022.
IDPs and Returnees tracked by IOM DTM in 2020 and 2021
Source : IOM - https://displacement.iom.int/libya
Health: Over 800,000 people are estimated to be in need of health assistance in 2022. The health system is struggling to provide essential healthcare (including vaccinations) and COVID-19 treatment amid staff and medicine shortages. Health facilities and medical personnel have been the object of attacks during over 10 years of conflict. In 2021, about 90% of primary healthcare centres remained closed, and only six out of 227 assessed health facilities in southern Libya had adequate levels of electricity.?
Food security: Over 511,000 people were estimated to be food-insecure and in need of food assistance in 2021, including over 120,000 migrants and refugees. The instable security situation, the economic crisis, and COVID-19 containment measures hinder people’s ability to access livelihoods opportunities and meet their food needs.?
Protection: Over 350,000 people are estimated to be in need of protection assistance in 2022, mainly in the Benghazi, Misrata, Sebha, and Tripoli regions. The presence of unexploded explosive ordnance is a major concern for civilians living in and returnees willing to return to contaminated areas. Arbitrary detention is a major protection risk faced by refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers, including children. Libya did not sign the 1951 Refugee Convention, and there is no law on the status and treatment of refugees and asylum seekers. Refugees are seen as illegal migrants and face detention based on national legislation. ?
Shelter and NFIs: About 397,000 people are estimated to be in need of shelter and NFI assistance in 2022. Returnees often find their houses destroyed or damaged and are unable to afford reconstruction costs. NFI is one of the three priority needs for returnees. Thousands of IDPs are living in inadequate housing. Shelter is the priority need for the IDP population.?
WASH: Over 380,000 people are estimated to need access to safe WASH services. Attacks on water systems, power cuts, and lack of repair items have led to a significant decline in WASH services, particularly since 2020. This puts pressure on families to secure water for drinking and day use. About 40% of garbage and solid waste is kept on the street or buried, leading to higher risks of diseases such as respiratory illnesses and waterborne diseases.?
Education: Over 171,000 people are estimated to be in need of education assistance in 2022. The education system has been affected by years of conflict and worsened by pandemic-related school closures. There are also remote learning barriers, such as electricity and internet cuts. About 74% of schools do not have appropriate safe drinking water, and 35% lack gender-segregated toilets. Attacks on education centres resulted in over 245 schools partially damaged or fully destroyed. ?