Control for territory in Libya is contested by different stakeholders, who mainly align with either the LNA, the GNA, or the GNC. Local and foreign militias, totalling between 1,000 and 1,700 armed groups, are thought to be involved in the conflict. Other countries have been providing military support, either directly (mainly by air force) or by supplying one side financially or with arms. The high number and diversity of stakeholders has been a major obstacle to a political solution. ?
The Government of National Accord (GNA)
The GNA is the internationally recognised executive power in Libya. It was established based on the UN-brokered Libyan Political Agreement (LPA) signed in December 2015 between rival government factions GNC and HoR. According to the LPA, the GNA should be endorsed by the HoR, but on two occasions the HoR has voted down the list of ministers. ?The presidential council (PC) functions as the head of state under the LPA, with a prime minister, Fayez Serraj, leading it. The PC is based in Tripoli.
On 17 December 2017, the Libyan National Army (LNA) leader General Khalifa Haftar announced in a televised speech that the LPA had expired.? In the same speech, he said that the LNA would recognise the GNA, the PC or any other party to the LPA only if recognised as legitimate by Libyan people. ?
The House of Representatives (HoR)
The HoR was chosen in June 2014, in an election marked by a low turnout. Based in the eastern city of Tobruk, the HoR enjoys the support of the LNA and Haftar. Although legislators are required to vote to accept and join the UN-backed unity government, they have largely refused to do so since the LPA was signed in late 2015. In March 2017, a fight for control over the oil crescent resulted in the HoR in Tobruk voting to officially withdraw from the LPA.
In June 2017, the HoR cut diplomatic ties with Qatar alongside Egypt and the UAE (both supporters of the HoR) and four other countries. The decision came hours after Qatar was accused of supporting groups including the Muslim Brotherhood - the main party in the GNC - and IS. ? This is one of the most telling examples of the effects of international stakeholders over the internal stakeholders in Libya.
The General National Congress (GNC)
The GNC was formed by politicians from the blocs that lost the June 2014 elections. The GNC claimed to be the rightful continuation of the 2012 Congress, Libya’s first government. It was dominated by the Justice and Construction Party as well as the Loyalty to Martyrs Bloc, both associated with the Muslim Brotherhood.? Most of the GNC members went on to form the High Council of State within the LPA. The remaining ones, led by Khalifa Ghwell, a former GNC prime minister, declined to support the LPA, and established a “National Salvation Government” to rival the GNA in Tripoli. Its militia allies control parts of the city.?
Libyan National Army (LNA) and Khalifa Haftar
The LNA is a mix of military units and tribal or regional-based armed groups. The LNA grew out of Operation Dignity, an offensive against armed Islamist groups launched by Khalifa Haftar in 2014. Haftar is allied with the HoR, which recognises him as the general commander of the armed forces, and the LNA as the official army. Haftar is very popular in eastern Libya and HoR decisions are heavily dependent on his approval.? Sudan's armed opposition group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), is fighting alongside LNA forces in Libya.? The LNA is supported by Egypt, UAE, and increasingly, Russia. The LNA exerts vast military control over eastern territories, such as Benghazi, al-Beyda, Tobruk, and the oil crescent region east of Sirte. ? The LNA has been accused of human rights violations, with the International Criminal Court (ICC) issuing an arrest warrant for one of its commanders in August.?
Since 2017, Khalifa Haftar and the LNA more involved in talks with the EU and Italy on countering illegal migration towards Europe. Following a visit to Rome to meet with the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs at the end of September, Haftar announced a willingness to contribute to stemming the flow of illegal migrants towards Europe. In exchange for this cooperation, he asked European countries to provide aid in the form of vehicles, drones, and helicopters. ?
Since 2017, IS has been regaining territories in Libya taking advantage of the security and political vacuum. The group has been able to establish supply and transportation hubs and checkpoints in central Libya in order to control resources and hamper freedom of movement.? Reports on their regrouping in southwestern Libya, around Bani Walid, as well as around Sirte, have become more frequent.?Their presence has also been reported in Jufra, southwestern Libya, where they have allegedly attacked an LNA checkpoint.? IS is present in other parts of Libya, including Derna, Benghazi, and Tripoli.?
Ansar al Sharia and the Benghazi Revolutionary Shura Council (BRSC)
Ansar al Sharia announced its dissolution on 27 May 2017. They stated the decision was based on loss of territories and weakened capacities following clashes in its stronghold, Benghazi, with the LNA.?
Ansar al Sharia was formed in 2012, advocating the immediate imposition of Sharia law. It was the largest jihadist organisation in Libya,. The group’s stronghold was Benghazi, with affiliates in Derna and Ajdabiya. Ansar al Sharia merged with other local militias to form the Benghazi Revolutionary Shura Council (BRSC) to combat Operation Dignity in 2014. Although Ansar al Sharia and IS competed for members and territory they fought together against the LNA in Benghazi.?
Benghazi Defence Brigades (BDB)
Composed of Libyan nationals, the BDB were formed in opposion to the LNA and as of April 2017 reject any inclusion of Haftar and the LNA in the Libyan political dialogue.? The BDB support the BRSC and the Ajdabiya Revolutionary Shura Council (ARSC), a similar Islamist coalition based in Ajdabiya.? The BDB have themselves at least a partial Islamist connotation.?
Misratan militias are the military power centre in western Libya and are opposed to the LNA. Most of them are mostly loosely allied with the GNA, while some others support the GNC. They were the main forces fighting IS in Sirte, supported by US airstrikes. The Misratans are strongly opposed to the LNA and Haftar. On 31 January 2017, the Misrata Military Council (MMC) announced that all militias operating under its control will join “the Libyan Army”, a western Libyan group opposing Haftar's LNA. This can be seen as a move to coalesce Misratan forces. On 10 May, the Misrata elders and notables council called for the overthrow of the GNA after its foreign minister showed willingness to accept Khalifa Haftar as the head of Libya's army.?
The conflict in Libya involves many international stakeholders. Most of them have an ambiguous role, facilitating the discussions between the GNA and the LNA, while supporting more or less openly one side. Countries in the Middle East, northern Africa and the north of Sub-Saharan Africa and Italy are the most involved in the conflict.? A UN report in June 2017 described the international involvement as an "obstacle" to a political solution in Libya. ?
Egypt has had an ambiguous role in the Libyan conflict. On one hand, diplomats and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs have expressed support for the UN-led political process. On the other, the security apparatus has supported Haftar despite his open disapproval for the Unity government and close ties to the HoR, and has conducted airstrikes numerous times to support the LNA since 2015 - in Benghazi for example.?On 19 September 2017, Egypt announced it will host LNA military officers to work on the reunification of their army. ? On 24 October 2017, the Egyptian military openly declared its support for the LNA and Khalifa Haftar in their fight against extremism in Libya. ?
The UAE delivers weapons and has provided air support to Haftar and allied militias.? They conducted numerous airstrikes to support the LNA in the battle for Benghazi. ?
Russia has shown support for the LNA, and Haftar has gone to Moscow multiple times.? However, it also maintains open discussion channels with the GNA and the Misratans.? The GNA has been seeking economic cooperation with Russia.?
Italy is actively involved in Libya, and supports the peace process. ? They are thought to side with the GNA, although they have publicly claimed neutrality and maintain a relationship with Haftar and the HoR.?Italy reopened its embassy in Tripoli in January 2017, the first Western country to do so.? Italy has been operating a military hospital in Misrata since October.?
Italy has been vocal about the need to strengthen Libya's southern border, which is currently very porous. ? The Italian government has said it is increasingly difficult for them to cope with the flow of migrants from Libya to Europe.? In October 2017, Italy has been warned by the Council of Europe's Human Rights Commissioner on the risks of its agreements with Libya on countering illegal migration.?
US and other EU countries
EU countries and the EU policies on migration have a strong impact on Libya's internal policies, as well as on Libya's humanitarian crisis. As of 19 October, the European Council issued a Council Conclusions on Migration in which it reiterated the importance for EU countries to work with Libyan authorities to enhance border management , as well as the need to support the facilitation of voluntary returns, guaranteeing the humane treatment of migrants. ?
The US, through the US Africa Command (Africom), provides military support to the GNA in combating IS in the region of Sirte. ?
Newly elected French president Emmanuel Macron has openly stated his support for the LNA. ?
United Nations Support Mission in Libya (unsmil)
UNSMIL was established in 2011 as a political mission to help restore state institutions. On 14 September, its mandate was extended until 15 September 2018. ?