Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.70 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Despite recent conflicts and a tense political relationship with Israel and sometimes Syria, Lebanon is currently a relatively stable country. As a result, many refugees have sought safety there, with 1.5 million Syrian refugees and 28,800 Palestinian refugees from Syria.? Lebanon has the largest numbers of Syrian refugees per capita in the world - one in four people is a Syrian refugee.
Tensions between host and refugee populations are frequent as the high number of refugees has put pressure on the already strained Lebanese economy. Food and rent prices have increased, competition for jobs has grown, and there is pressure on the health and education systems. In addition, refugees in Lebanon face significant protection issues, including lack of documentation, evictions, and discrimination. Although the pressure from the government and Hezbollah on Syrians to return to Syria has been increasing, the actual number of returnees remains unknown.?
INFORM measures Lebanon's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 5.3/10.?
10/04/2021: The socioeconomic crisis and COVID-19 have disrupted education for 1.2 million children across Lebanon since October 2019. Around 35% of child refugees enrolled in school in 2020 had access to some remote learning. Lack of space, civil documents, and transportation to school are limiting refugees’ access to education ?.
05/04/2021: Additional 2.5 million Lebanese and 430,000 Syrian refugees are projected to fall behind the national poverty line in 2021. COVID-19 compounded the socio-economic crisis and led to an increase in the number of people adopting negative coping mechanisms including cutting spending on food and basic needs, selling household’s items to meet the cost of living, and child labour ?.
25/03/2021: More children engaged in child labour and became the main income earners in their families as poverty increased and access to food deteriorated in Lebanon since October 2019. Over 65% of working children reported being the main earner for their families in 2020, up from 40% in 2019 ?.
Number of registered Syrian refugees 2019-2020
Source : UNHCR - https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/syria/location/71
Shelter: formal refugee camps for Syrians are banned in Lebanon forcing a large number of Syrian refugees to live in makeshift tents (19%) and in non-residential structures such as construction sites, animal sheds, and garages (15%), which offer little protection from the elements and leave refugees exposed to extreme weather during Lebanon’s harsh winter months.?
WASH: needs are high in Lebanon for refugees as well as for host communities. In particular, the WASH systems lack the capacity to cope with the influx of refugees.
Protection: legal documentation remains the major protection concern in Lebanon for Syrian refugees, preventing them from accessing basic services and from being legally employed.?
Lebanon reported 740 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 25 deaths as of 5 May. Containment measures have meant that many Syrian refugees had to stop working, in sectors such as agriculture, for example. Poor Lebanese, Palestinian and Syrian refugees are all facing increasing financial difficulties. Rent, food, and medicines risk not being covered due to the recent loss of incomes, and remain priority needs. Mental health is a concern, with high stress levels reported. Provisional assessments conducted between March and April highlighted needs for more hygiene kits. Overcrowding, poor WASH infrastructure, and undocumented refugees’ fears of authorities are all aggravating factors for a potential outbreak in urban and informal refugee settlements. At beginning of April, Syrians living in 21 municipalities were targeted by COVID-19 restrictions deemed as discriminatory, because they were not also applied to Lebanese citizens. Lebanese officials have enforced the curfew in the informal settlements and conducted sanitisation operations. Humanitarians have had occasional access difficulties, for instance in providing health services in camps due to local COVID-19 restrictions. All aid work deemed non-essential has come to a halt or is performed remotely.?