Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.10 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.60 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.90 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Lebanon: Analysis of humanitarian needs in Greater Beirut
Accumulating fiscal and economic problems led to a deep and wide-reaching crisis, spurring protests throughout Lebanon starting from 17 October 2019. Protesters, who took to the streets as recently as June 2020, have demonstrated against politicians, corruption, and denounced a deteriorating quality of life.?The main issues affecting the entire population include rising inflation, skyrocketing commodity prices, informal capital controls and limits put on personal bank withdrawals, scarcity of foreign currency, and staggering unemployment.? Non-governmental estimations find 20% of the population below the extreme poverty line, with 41 % of the population below the poverty line.? Unofficial estimates of unemployment report around 80,000 job losses since 17 October, for a total of 430,000 people unemployed as of May 2020.?
On 30 April Prime Minister Hassan Diab unveiled a plan of economic and governance reforms to tackle the spiralling crisis, also aiming at obtaining an IMF plan.? The impact of the economic crisis is felt by all, but especially the already poor and vulnerable Lebanese communities, and refugees within the country.?
03/09/2020: The port explosion in Beirut has created up to 800,000 tonnes of demolition waste, likely containing hazardous chemicals, which can negatively impact people's health. Beirut’s waste management system was already fragile, with one of the two waste plants serving the city severely damaged in the blast.?
27/08/2020: Half of households assessed during a joint rapid needs assessment (Aug 10-17) following the Beirut explosion reported children in their household showing signs of psychosocial distress. One-third of households reported symptoms of mental health distress among adults. Read ACAPS latest report for more information on the humanitarian needs of the affected population.?
For more information on the humanitarian impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, please see the relevant paragraph below.
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Find more information related to the outbreak.
Humanitarian access contraints in Lebanon are due to both logistics constraints related to the economic crisis, such as shortages of US dollars - which has affected operations and cash distributions - and COVID-19 containment measures, resulting in new access negotiations with local authorities. Vulnerable groups such as non-ID Palestinians and Syrian refugees are still restricted in accessing services by lack of documentation and impositions of targeted curfews (in place also before the pandemic). In addition, human rights groups report the latter are subject to deportations back to Syria and settlement demolition. Presence of explosive devices and the protection risks they pose have also registered an uptick.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Number of riots and protests (October 2019-April 2020)
Source : ACLED - https://acleddata.com/data-export-tool/
Lebanon reported 717 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 27 deaths as of 29 April. On 25 April authorities confirmed a case in the Wavel Palestinian refugee camp in the Bekaa Valley, which hosts around 2,000 people. Four additional cases from the same family were confirmed within hours. Response has focused on cash distribution, information campaigns on hygiene practices, provision of medical equipment, and preparation of temporary isolation facilities in camps. Already in deep economic and financial crisis, food and commodity prices have continued to rise and the value of the Lebanese lira has collapsed since the nation went into lockdown on 18 March. Protests have intensified since 26 April, impeding the departure of COVID-19 testing teams from the capital Beirut.?
Livelihoods and food security: rising levels of unemployment, salary cuts, and poverty threaten people’s access to food and sustainable livelihoods.
Protection: 4,300 injuries and 11 deaths associated with the ongoing demonstrations were reported up to 28 April 2020.? Demonstrators and security forces have clashed multiple times in the last months.?
WASH: Dissatisfaction with the solid waste management system and sporadic garbage collection was demonstrated in protests beginning in 2015.? The inefficiency in waste management exposes the population to higher health risks.
- Figures on poverty levels change rapidly and different sources mention different estimates.
- There are no updated figures for poverty among Palestinian and Syrian refugees, though baseline data from previous years is available.
- There is no official figure regarding the number of jobs lost since October 2019.