Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)1.90 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.60 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.1.60 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.1.80 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.1.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
The number of people arriving in Italy peaked in 2016 (over 180,000 by sea) and declined in the following years. In 2021, Italy recorded over 66,750 arrivals compared to around 34,150 in 2020 and 11,470 in 2019, showing an increase in the number of new arrivals since 2019. Most migrants and asylum seekers start their journey by sea towards Italy from Libya. In 2021, over 70% of the people embarking on the journey were men, mostly coming from Tunisia (24%), Egypt (12.5%), and Bangladesh (12%). Migrants and asylum seekers are often fleeing from poverty, persecution, and/or conflict in their home countries, looking for security and better economic and social opportunities in Europe. ?
Over 18,800 people have been reported missing in the Central Mediterranean since 2014. More than 1,550 people have died in 2021 compared to about 1,000 people in 2020 – a 55% increase.?
ccess to work is considered the main challenge for migrants and refugees in the country.? COVID-19-related movement restrictions have also had an impact on projects that provide migrants with food, work, and integration support. Many migrants have lost their sources of livelihood because of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. ?
In February 2020, the Libya-Italy Memorandum of Understanding on Migration (LIMUM) was extended for another three years, with the objective to stop illegal migration, human trafficking, and smuggling. Although the implementation of LIMUM is supposed to comply with human rights agreements, its contents, objective, and implementation remain controversial. Through LIMUM, Italy supports the Libyan maritime authorities in stopping vessels and returning asylum seekers or migrants to detention centres in Libya. ?
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.