Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)0 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.0 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.0 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.30 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
- 344 Fatalities reported [?]
The central Mediterranean route, from Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly Libya and Tunisia but also Algeria, to Italy has been one of the most active and dangerous routes for people crossing to Europe by sea. Italy recorded around 181,000 sea arrivals in 2016, and 119,000 in 2017, before numbers dropped to 23,400 in 2018.? Since then, arrival numbers have again lowered significantly, 92% in the first quarter of 2019 compared to the same time period in 2018 (from 6,269 to 524 new sea arrivals). However, the number of people who have died or are missing remain high. ? As of 31 May, 321 people have lost their lives or remain missing on the central Mediterranean route in 2019. ?
Around 74% of the people embarking on the journey are men. The proportion of unattended minors remains high, at 19%.? Main countries of origin are Tunisia (28% of new arrivals), Algeria (16%), and Iraq (13%). In January, seven people arrived daily in Italy on average, compared to 135 in January 2018.?
The mixed migration movements include refugees fleeing from persecution and conflict in their home countries as well as migrants looking for better economic and social opportunities in Europe. Human rights violations are reported in detention centers, especially in Libya. Protection, food and health concerns are high among the migrants and asylum seekers. ?Many become victims of sexual exploitation and human trafficking.?
No recent significant humanitarian developments. This situation is being monitored by our analysis team.
Sea arrivals in Italy (UNHCR)
Information Gaps and Needs
- Information about migrants is scarce and often inadequate. Numbers of people leaving Algeria, Libya or Tunisia to reach Italy, or other destinations in Europe, are estimations.
- The needs of migrants and refugees remain largely unknown.
- The total number of refugees and asylum seekers in Italy is unknown.