Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.90 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.40 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.90 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Iraq: Floods in Ninewa and Salah al-Din
People are returning home after several years of conflict and displacement, but the Iraqi government still faces significant challenges to ensure safety and stability, functioning infrastructure, and access to basic services and job opportunities. ?Relations with the autonomous Kurdish Region of Iraq (KR-I), which voted for independence in September 2017, remain fragile.?
Some 10,000-15,000 Islamic State (IS) militants are believed to remain in Hamrin Mountains, Kirkuk governorate, Mosul, the southern part of Ninewa governorate, and the desert areas of Anbar governorate. ?
Almost 65% of all people in need are concentrated in Anbar, Ninewa, and Salah al-Din governorates. ?Large scale displacement persists despite the expulsion of IS from Iraqi territory. In December 2017. Return movements slowed in 2018 as returnees often face damaged housing, insecurity, and lack basic services and livelihood opportunities. ?Efforts to reduce areas extensively contaminated with explosive remnants of war are ongoing, however, progress is very slow. ?Additionally, Iraq hosts 250,000 Syrian refugees, of whom 99% live in KR-I. 69% of all Syrian refugees in Iraq are women and children. ?
The humanitarian crisis is compounded by reoccurring, countrywide natural disasters, such as floods and droughts. INFORM measures Iraq’s risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high, at 7.2/10. Hazard and exposure, as well as lack of coping capacity, are of particular concern, at 8.6/10 and 7/10 rates. ?
18/06: At least 46,4 sq km of agricultural crops have been burned in 303 separate incidents from 8 May to 14 June. 11 governorates have been affected, with more than 50% of the area burnt in Salah al-Din governorate. IS claimed responsibility for setting wheat crops on fire as civilians refused to pay taxes to them. The wheat harvest is ongoing from May to mid-June. Farmers are at risk of losing their annual harvest. Most of the affected areas are within disputed territories where IS has been trying to take advantage of a security vacuum left by Iraqi forces, Shia groups and the Kurdish Peshmerga forces. ?
VERY HIGH CONSTRAINTS
Humanitarian movement within Iraq has reduced since September 2018 due to new tariffs and customs checks between Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) and federal Iraq. Despite the abolishment of these new checkpoints in February 2019, remaining access challenges include the presence of different military authorities, and new documentation required by the federal government to import humanitarian goods tax-free. Multiple access constraints are reported in Ninewa and Kirkuk governorates. Movement is further impeded by insecurity related to Islamic State (IS) activities and unexploded ordnance, especially in and around Mosul. Recurring floods, especially in northern governorates, and poor road infrastructure mark significant physical constraints. Iraqi authorities are reportedly interfering with humanitarian activities in instances where aid and services are provided to people associated with or accused of having IS ties.
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Health services are severely underequipped and understaffed and 5.54 million people are in need of health assistance. Psychosocial support is needed, especially among IDPs. ?
Protection is a major concern with 4.52 million people in need of protection assistance. Protection needs are particularly high in Anbar, Diyala, Ninewa, and Salah al-Din governorate. Explosive remnants of war are a particular safety risk.?
Education: Children affected by conflict have limited access to education. In total, 2.56 million people are in need of education, 60% of whom are returnees. The quality of teaching is undermined as qualified teachers are lacking and more than 50% of the existing schools are in need of rehabilitation and reconstruction. ?
Information Gaps and Needs
- The tracking of IDPs that became refugees and the numbers of refugee returnees is lacking. Their needs and their whereabouts remain mostly unknown.
- Different delineations of administrative borders between central and regional governments (especially the KR-I) impacts on the accuracy of displacement tracking.
- The number of IS fighters currently in Iraq is unknown and more recent estimates are lacking.