Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.90 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.30 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.60 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
The people of Iraq have endured consecutive crises over the past two decades, including the US-led invasion, incidents of sectarian violence, the conflict with IS that created significant internal displacement, and most recently the COVID-19 outbreak and subsequent economic slowdown. The situation in Iraq is characterised by economic and social decline and political and security volatility. ?
Iraq hosts more than 250,000 Syrian refugees and 37,000 refugees of other nationalities, mostly Turks, Iranians, and Palestinians. Around 99% of the refugees reside in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, with about one-third living in camps. More than 230,000 host community members have been impacted by this displacement.?
INFORM measures Iraq’s risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high at 6.6/10. ?
Because of prolonged drought conditions in the country since 2019, over 46,200 people in the southern wetland area of Iraq known as the Marshes continue to lose their livestock. The Marshes are one of the areas most affected by water scarcity in the country. The large majority of communities in the area comprise herders whose main livelihood activity is raising water buffalos. Low water levels in Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and high temperatures have led particularly to their loss of livelihoods. The people affected require relevant assistance, including water tanks and animal feed. Some resort to coping mechanisms, including internal displacement mainly to Karbala, Kut, Najaf, Samawah, and Shatrah governorates where water is available, or decide to change their main economic activity. Other families resort to selling their livestock at a lower price to afford the cost of feeding the rest. ?
very High constraints
Iraq faced Very High humanitarian access constraints in the past six months, scoring 4/5 in ACAPS Humanitarian Access Index. The humanitarian access situation remained stable.
For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – July 2022.
Registered protests and riots in 2020 & 2021
Source : ACLED
Information Gaps and Needs
- The tracking of IDPs that became refugees and the numbers of refugee returnees is lacking. Their needs and their whereabouts remain mostly unknown.
- Different delineations of administrative borders between central and regional governments (especially the KR-I) impacts on the accuracy of displacement tracking.
- The number of IS fighters currently in Iraq is unknown and more recent estimates are lacking.
In 2021, Iraq faced the second-driest season in 40 years and the third straight year of drought as a result of record low rainfall, high temperatures, and the loss of access to water from the Euphrates and Tigris rivers caused by climate change and excessive use of water sources. At least seven million people are at risk of losing access to water, leading to more dependency on expensive water trucking ?.
The low water levels in the Euphrates and Tigris rivers were induced by drought conditions and excessive upstreaming dam storage by neighbouring countries. This will continue to put a strain on agricultural, livestock, and fish production. It is estimated that over 50% of all crops (including major ones) were lost in 2021 because of the drought. More than 35% of wheat farmers and 30% of barley farmers reported crop failure by at least 90%, and 37% of households engaged in livestock reported losing animals. The drop in agricultural production has already led to an increase in prices and caused a loss of income for Agriculture About half of the households affected by drought are in need of food assistance ?.
The climate and environment insecurity, compounded by security and economic vulnerabilities, has increased social tension over water sources and led to the migration of rural populations to cities, particularly in southern Iraq. Rural communities are suffering from severe environmental degradation and lack of diverse economic opportunities. The situation will further aggravate the socioeconomic, humanitarian, and ecological conditions in Iraq ?.