• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 237,655,000 Total population [?]
  • 3,594,000 People affected [?]



The Free Papua Movement has been leading an insurgency movement since the 1960s, which calls for the independence of Papua and West Papua provinces. The insurgency has long been an excuse for military involvement in Papua, with the Indonesian Government consistently accused of human rights violations and violent suppression of the movement. There have been reports of extrajudicial killings, torture, arbitrary detention, looting and burning of villages, and mistreatment of peaceful protesters. Indonesian security forces rarely face justice for abuses in Papua.?

As at late April, escalating clashes and the military deployment of 400 troops has resulted in the displacement of 3,000 people in Puncak regency. The assassination of the head of the regional intelligence agency carried out by the West Papua National Liberation Army (WPNLA) led to the latest security operation, which includes internet cutoffs. The Government has since designated the WPNLA as a ‘terrorist’ group. ?

There was a violence increase in December 2018 after separatists killed 19 construction workers who were building the highly contentious Trans-Papua Highway in Nduga regency. Conflict also escalated in August 2019, when anti-racism protests and widespread violence erupted in the Papuan provinces following the detention and discriminatory treatment of 43 Papuan students on the island of Java. Indonesia implemented a heavy-handed response to the protests: 6,000 military personnel were deployed to the region, an internet slowdown was established, movement restrictions were put in place, and dozens of activists were detained. 42,000 indigenous Papuans were displaced by the conflict between December 2018–March 2020. The number of IDPs is usually difficult to verify; however, it is currently at around 31,000 people.  ?

INFORM measures Indonesia's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be medium, at 4.8/10.?

Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.

Key Priorities


Intersectoral: IDPs are in need of protection, shelter, food, NFIs, and health assistance. Many IDPs suffer from respiratory infections, diarrhoea, and dysentery, as they are unable to access health services. Reports suggest that over 214 IDPs died in 2019 because of these overarching conditions.?

Education: Displaced children have unmet education needs, as schools have been damaged in clashes and children often avoid going to school for fear of being caught up in violence. School buildings are also used as military outposts for armed groups. A number of teachers are reported to have stopped teaching because of active conflict.?

Information Gaps and Needs


The total number of people displaced cannot be confirmed. Limited humanitarian access, and the Indonesian government's tight restrictions on foreign NGOs, media agencies, and human rights organisations in the Papuan provinces have constrained access and information. The implementation of an internet slowdown since September 2020 makes it difficult to assess the humanitarian situation in real time.