Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.10 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.1.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.00 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Indonesia sits on the Pacific ‘Ring of Fire’ and is at risk of multiple natural hazards in the form of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, tropical cyclones, tsunamis, and flooding. This exposure to natural hazards, coupled with rapid urbanisation and low coping capacity, leaves populations vulnerable to disasters. INFORM measures Indonesia's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be medium, at 4.7/10.?
A Northeast monsoon brought heavy rains to Indonesia in January 2020, resulting in severe flooding in the greater Jakarta area. The provinces of West Java, Banten, and Jakarta were hardest hit. More than 500,000 people were affected and 175,000 were displaced in the initial days of the flooding. Key priorities include provision of shelter for the displaced, shelter repair kits for those whose homes have been damaged, and health, as flood waters bring a high risk of disease.?
In Papua and West Papua provinces, the OPM (Organisasi Papua Merdeka), known in English as the Free Papua Movement, has led an independence movement since the early 1960s. Violence escalated in August 2019 when anti-racism protests against the Indonesian government erupted in Papua, particularly in Wamena town, and spread across several Indonesian provinces, including Java. Protection is a key concern as the insurgency has long been the excuse for excessive military involvement in Papua and the Indonesian government has been accused of human rights violations and violent suppression of the movement. The number of people displaced by insurgency-related violence is unknown, but reports suggest as many as 5,000 people are living in IDP camps in Nduga Regency. Conditions in camps are poor and IDPs are in need of protection, shelter, food, NFIs, and health support.?
Heavy rainfall in West Sulawesi has resulted in flash flooding and landslides. Four villages are flooded, with water levels reaching 200cm in some areas. Seven people have died and more than 3,000 have been displaced and are staying in emergency shelters. There is significant infrastructure damage, with the Trans-Sulawesi road completely under water, disrupting humanitarian access.?
Infrastructure damage and disruption of communications and electricity networks caused by flooding in the Jakarta area hindered humanitarian response. The Indonesian government maintains tight restrictions on foreign NGOs, media agencies, and human rights organisations in the Papuan provinces.?
WASH: Poor drainage systems and damage to WASH infrastructure caused by flood waters has restricted access to clean drinking water and proper sanitation facilities.
Health: Previous flooding has led to the spread of diseases including hepatitis A, dengue, malaria, typhus, and skin and respiratory illnesses. Spread of disease is particularly concerning given high population density in the area affected by flooding.?
Protection is a key concern as the Indonesian government continues to crack down on the insurgency in the Papuan provinces.Conditions in IDP camps in Papua and West Papua are poor. Adequate shelter, food, water and NFIs are lacking. There are cases of IDPs dying from malnutrition.?
Information regarding displacement and humanitarian needs in Papua and West Papua is limited, largely due to access constraints on the region. Information on the affected populations’ needs and the severity of their needs, as well as the response, is also limited.
Updated information regarding the protests since August 2019, such as size, locations, and impact, is limited. The implementation of an internet slowdown in September and the Indonesian government's tight restrictions on foreign NGOs, media agencies, and human rights organisations in the Papuan Provinces has constrained access and information.
Papua Protests (Risk December 2019)
Protests have all but disappeared in Indonesia’s Papuan province. Those responsible for the racial taunts that fuelled the protests in August 2019 have been convicted in the country’s first racism case. However, conflict between supporters of the Free Papua Movement and Indonesian security forces remains a threat to civilians, particularly in the Central Highlands. Since the 2019 protests, widespread arrests and treason charges against Papuan activists have continued and reports of refugee movements into neighbouring Papua New Guinea have surfaced. Arms proliferation in the region and the discovery of caches of weapons indicates the ability of the conflict to further escalate. When outlining the political agenda for 2020, the Indonesian government announced plans to evaluate funding received by the Papuan provinces, as well as the creation of additional provinces within Papua and West Papua. Measures perceived as further encroachments on Papuan autonomy are likely to see another rise in protests and independence-related violence.?
Read the full ACAPS End of Year Report 2019