• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 4,105,000 People affected [?]
  • 19,000 People displaced [?]
  • 19,000 People in Need [?]



Indonesia sits on the Pacific ‘Ring of Fire’ and is at risk of multiple natural hazards in the form of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, tropical cyclones, tsunamis, and flooding. This exposure to natural hazards, coupled with rapid urbanisation and low coping capacity, leaves populations vulnerable to disasters. INFORM measures Indonesia's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be medium, at 4.7/10.?

A Northeast monsoon brought heavy rains to Indonesia in January 2020, resulting in severe flooding in the greater Jakarta area. The provinces of West Java, Banten, and Jakarta were hardest hit. More than 500,000 people were affected and 175,000 were displaced in the initial days of the flooding. Key priorities include provision of shelter for the displaced, shelter repair kits for those whose homes have been damaged, and health, as flood waters bring a high risk of disease.?

In Papua and West Papua provinces, the OPM (Organisasi Papua Merdeka), known in English as the Free Papua Movement, has led an independence movement since the early 1960s. Violence escalated in August 2019 when anti-racism protests against the Indonesian government erupted in Papua, particularly in Wamena town, and spread across several Indonesian provinces, including Java. Protection is a key concern as the insurgency has long been the excuse for excessive military involvement in Papua and the Indonesian government has been accused of human rights violations and violent suppression of the movement. The number of people displaced by insurgency-related violence is unknown, but reports suggest as many as 5,000 people are living in IDP camps in Nduga Regency. Conditions in camps are poor and IDPs are in need of protection, shelter, food, NFIs, and health support.?

Latest Developments


Flooding that began on 23 January in West Java has affected 60,000 people and left 10,700 homes and 400 schools entirely flooded. Two people have been killed in a landslide in Sumedang District. West Java has already experienced massive flooding on 01 January of this year, when approximately 175,000 people were displaced across the greater Jakarta area.?


A Northeast monsoon which brought heavy rains to Indonesia in early January, has resulted in severe flooding in the greater Jakarta area. The provinces of West Java, Banten, and Jakarta were hardest hit, with 74 districts and 293 sub-districts affected by flash flooding and landslides, affecting more 500,000 people. More than 175,000 were displaced on 01 January. As of 16 January, 19,000 people remain displaced across 60 emergency shelters. Local and national authorities, including the Regional Disaster Management Agency (BPBD), continue to monitor the situation and provide emergency assistance to those affected. Key priorities include provision of shelter for the displaced, shelter repair kits for those whose homes have been damaged, and health, as flood waters bring a high risk of disease. See ACAPS' Briefing Note for more information.?


Escalating violence due to protests in Papua and West Papua leads to displacement and increased humanitarian needs. Latest update: 29/11/2019


Highly unlikely Somewhat likely Highly likely


Very low Moderate Major

The provinces of Papua and West Papua are home to a low-level insurgency, ongoing since the establishment of the Free Papua Movement in 1963. Violence escalated after a large-scale attack by militants in December 2018.? Since 19 August 2019, anti-racism protests have erupted and the independence movement has reignited, causing widespread violence. Protests erupted in response to the detention and discriminatory treatment of 43 Papuan students on the island of Java and have evolved into riots. Indonesia has implemented a heavy-handed response: 6,000 military personnel deployed to the region, an internet slowdown, and the detention of dozens of activists. More than 40 people have been killed.?

Protests in the Papuan provinces are common; however, current unrest is unprecedented. Historically, protest movements have been orchestrated by exiled Papuan leaders and were limited to the provinces. The current protests originated from directly within West Papua and spread across Indonesia. Since mid-August, protests have occurred in 30 cities in Indonesia and solidarity demonstrations have taken place in Papua New Guinea and Australia.?Tensions between Papuans and Indonesians have also escalated. Since mid-August, threats have forced more than 2,000 Papuan university students across Indonesia to return home to Papua province, and the government has evacuated 16,000 non-Papuan migrants from Wamena due to safety concerns.?

Access constraints for humanitarian agencies have left the response in the hands of the Indonesian government. However, there is currently no government-coordinated humanitarian response in areas impacted by previous violence or ongoing protests. The Indonesian government has used the Free Papua Movement as a reason for maintaining strict standards for local and foreign NGOs in the region. Access for human rights organisations has been restricted and international intervention rejected.?

Protection is a major concern given that Indonesian rule in the region has been marked by human rights violations, including torture and extrajudicial killings of activists and protestors.?Widespread unrest has disrupted access to public services. Schools have suffered damages and closures due to the riots. Markets and businesses have been burnt and forced to close, limiting access to goods and services, as well as livelihoods. Reports suggest that power outages caused by damage from the riots have disrupted health services in affected communities in Wamena.?

IDPs in areas affected by riots are particularly vulnerable to secondary displacement and elevated humanitarian needs as services become disrupted and humanitarian access constrained by insecurity. Clashes between separatist militants and Indonesian forces have displaced as many as 30,000 people in Nduga since December 2018.? Wamena, a town of 31,000 people, has experienced the highest levels of riot-related violence and is already hosting as many as 5,000 IDPs from neighbouring Nduga regency.?Conditions in IDP camps are poor and access to food, water, and healthcare is limited. In August 2019, a local NGO reported that nearly 200 IDPs have died this year from malnutrition and disease.? There exists the potential for an influx of West Papuan refugees to neighbouring Papua New Guinea (PNG). As of 15 October 2019, there are no reports of refugees from West Papua in PNG; however, a contingency plan has been drafted by the PNG government in coordination with the National Disaster Centre, UN agencies, and NGOs in case of refugee arrivals.?

Read this risk

Access Constraints


Infrastructure damage and disruption of communications and electricity networks caused by flooding in the Jakarta area hindered humanitarian response. The Indonesian government maintains tight restrictions on foreign NGOs, media agencies, and human rights organisations in the Papuan provinces.?

Key Priorities


WASH: Poor drainage systems and damage to WASH infrastructure caused by flood waters has restricted access to clean drinking water and proper sanitation facilities.

Health: Previous flooding has led to the spread of diseases including hepatitis A, dengue, malaria, typhus, and skin and respiratory illnesses. Spread of disease is particularly concerning given high population density in the area affected by flooding.?

Protection is a key concern as the Indonesian government continues to crack down on the insurgency in the Papuan provinces.Conditions in IDP camps in Papua and West Papua are poor. Adequate shelter, food, water and NFIs are lacking. There are cases of IDPs dying from malnutrition.?


Information Gaps


Information regarding displacement and humanitarian needs in Papua and West Papua is limited, largely due to access constraints on the region. Information on the affected populations’ needs and the severity of their needs, as well as the response, is also limited.

Updated information regarding the protests since August 2019, such as size, locations, and impact, is limited. The implementation of an internet slowdown in September and the Indonesian government's tight restrictions on foreign NGOs, media agencies, and human rights organisations in the Papuan Provinces has constrained access and information.