• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 270,213,000 Total population [?]
  • 7,238,000 People affected [?]
  • 162,000 People in Need [?]



Indonesia sits in the Pacific Ring of Fire, making it prone to multiple natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, tropical cyclones, tsunamis, and flooding. Its location, coupled with rapid urbanisation and low institutional and infrastructural coping capacities to shocks, leaves the population vulnerable to these types of disasters. ?

On 21 November 2022, an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.6 on the Richter scale hit West Java province. As at 28 November, the quake had killed 320 people, 100 of whom were children, and injured more than 2,000. It damaged around 62,000 houses and 171 public facilities, including schools and hospitals that were destroyed. It also displaced more than 73,000 people currently staying in makeshift tents with limited space and no ventilation. ?

Since the 1960s, the Free Papua Movement has been leading armed and political activities calling for the independence of Papua and West Papua provinces. These activities have resulted in conflict with the country’s armed forces. In mid-2022, the two provinces were divided into six provinces. The conflict has decreased people’s access to basic services, introduced movement restrictions, and reduced livelihood opportunities for the indigenous population. It has also led to displacements involving both provinces’ entire population. The Indonesian Government has received repeated accusations of human rights violations and violent suppression of the movement. The number of IDPs is difficult to verify (the estimate is 60,000–100,000) given the access restrictions journalists and humanitarians are facing, including the denial of access for foreign journalists and humanitarian organisations to the region. IDPs are in need of protection, shelter, food, NFIs, and health assistance. Some have been displaced to remote areas, such as forests, where access to basic services and humanitarian assistance is very limited. ?

Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.

Humanitarian Access



Indoensia has faced high humanitarian constraints in the past six months. The humanitarian access situation in West Papua region, comprising Papua and West Papua provinces (which have been divided into several other provinces), has improved. No incidents have been reported regarding roadblocks or security presence hindering humanitarian activities in the last six months.

The Government and the separatist West Papua insurgency have been in low-intensity conflict in the region since the 1960s. The Government has so far been implementing a militaristic approach to the insurgency and protests in the region. Many people who have fled their homes to escape conflict have left their government-issued documents, such as government-issued IDs, at home. Without such documents, displaced people cannot access services, such as public health services. Many of the displaced do not return to their places of origin out of fear of security forces’ presence and violence. Some people are living in remote areas, such as forests, for the same reason, making their access to services even more challenging. Information regarding the humanitarian situation of displaced people is scarce given access restrictions imposed on humanitarian responders and journalists. Almost all international aid organisations and independent foreign journalists do not have access to the region, and the UN’s initiatives to monitor the human rights situation have yet to receive approval from the Government. The country has a law restricting internet services and authorises the arrest of journalists who publish content considered to be prohibited by the authorities. This law gives the latter control to manipulate the narrative of conflict in West Papua region. The Government’s attitude towards displaced Papuans indicates the downplaying of their needs.

Authorities continue to obstruct aid organisations’ access to displaced people, even when they are ready to deliver aid. Organisations also face time-consuming and complicated registration processes. Roadblocks and the extensive presence of security forces happen in response to insurgencies and protests. Although there have been no reports about such roadblocks, they might hinder the implementation of humanitarian activities should they materialise.

For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – December 2022