Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)0 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.0 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.0 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.70 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
- 16,991,000 People exposed [?]
Jammu and Kashmir: 2019 lockdown
The disputed territory of Kashmir has caused India and Pakistan to fight two wars since their partition in 1947. Thousands of militants have fought for the separation of Kashmir from India: some demanding accession to Pakistan and others calling for complete independence for the region. In 2019, a series of attacks on Indian forces by Pakistani-based militant groups, coupled with political efforts by the Indian government to strip Jammu and Kashmir of its autonomy escalated the long-running conflict and deteriorated the humanitarian situation in the region.?
Shelling between Pakistani and Indian security forces and militant attacks, especially along the Line of Control (LoC), have caused displacements and casualties. In Jammu and Kashmir, approximately 75-100,000 people are temporarily displaced each year due to conflict. While cross-border displacement is rare, reports indicate that 40,000 refugees from Indian-administered Kashmir are living in Pakistan-administered Kashmir in poor conditions in camps in Muzaffarabad. The number of displacements on the Pakistan side of the LoC are not verifiable due to information gaps.?
There is limited information regarding the humanitarian situation in the Kashmir region, owing to access restrictions imposed by both governments. In Jammu and Kashmir, this lack of information is exacerbated by severe restrictions on communications services. Protection is a significant concern. Reports indicate human rights violations by militants and government security forces are common on both sides of the LoC.?
There are no recent updates or developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
Protection: Shelling along the Line of Control poses a protection risk to people throughout Kashmir region. Casualties have spiked in recent years on both sides of the border. Human rights violations, including detention of separatists, excessive use of force, and restrictions on movement are used by both Pakistan and India to suppress independence movements in the region.?
Health: In Jammu and Kashmir, access to healthcare is constrained by communications and movement restrictions. The situation is marked by medicine shortages, delayed treatment, and inaccessibility of health facilities. In Azad Kashmir, access to healthcare is less restricted, however, the infrastructure, especially in rural areas is generally poor, and disease outbreaks are common. Refugees in Pakistan report limited access to healthcare.?
Humanitarian Access Constraints
Humanitarian access is highly constrained throughout the entire region due to ongoing insecurity and government restrictions. Government interference in NGO activities is common. In Pakistan-administered Kashmir, the most recent incidents were in 2016 when all NGOs in Muzaffarabad were ordered to cease operations and re-register, and 2018, when Pakistan ordered 18 NGOs to suspend operations including several with programming in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. In 2019, Indian government restrictions on Jammu and Kashmir disrupted access to public services for the civilian populations as well as access for humanitarian organisations. Data indicating the impact of improvised explosive devices on humanitarian access in the region is unavailable, however, reports indicate the presence of mines and unexploded ordnance along the Line of Control. Additionally, the Kashmir Valley is affected by rough terrain prone to flooding and landslides, both of which damage infrastructure and disrupt travel in the region.?
Information Gaps and Needs
There is no severity score for the Kashmir Regional crisis due to information gaps.
Restrictions on access to the region by India and Pakistan poses a challenge for verifying the number of people affected, displacement numbers and locations of displaced, and the priority humanitarian needs and severity of those needs.