Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)0 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.0 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.80 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
The disputed territory of Kashmir has been the cause of two wars between India and Pakistan since they separated in 1947. Thousands of militants have fought for the separation of Kashmir from India: some demanding accession to Pakistan, and others calling for complete independence for the region. In 2019, a series of attacks on Indian forces by Pakistani-based militant groups, coupled with political efforts by the Indian government to strip Jammu and Kashmir of its autonomy, escalated the long-running conflict and deteriorated the humanitarian situation in the region.?
Shelling between Pakistani and Indian security forces and militant attacks, especially along the Line of Control, have resulted in displacements and casualties. In 2020, almost daily clashes between the two militaries were recorded. In Jammu and Kashmir, approximately 75,000–100,000 people are temporarily displaced each year because of conflict. While cross-border displacement is rare, reports indicate that 40,000 refugees from Indian-administered Kashmir are in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, living in poor conditions in camps in Muzaffarabad city. The number of displacements on the Pakistan side of the Line of Control cannot be verified, because of information gaps. ?
There is limited information regarding the humanitarian situation in the Kashmir region, owing to access restrictions imposed by both governments. In Jammu and Kashmir, this lack of information is worsened by severe restrictions on communications services.?
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
Protection: Protection: Shelling along the Line of Control poses a protection risk to people throughout the Kashmir region. Casualties have spiked in recent years on both sides of the border. Human rights violations, including detention of separatists, excessive use of force, and restrictions on movement are used by both Pakistan and India to suppress independence movements in the region.?
Health: In Jammu and Kashmir, access to healthcare is constrained by communications and movement restrictions. The situation is marked by medicine shortages, delayed treatment, and inaccessible health facilities. In Azad Kashmir, access to healthcare is less restricted, but infrastructure – especially in rural areas – is generally poor, and disease outbreaks are common. Refugees in Pakistan report limited access to healthcare.?
Humanitarian Access Constraints
In India-administered Kashmir, the population continues to face extreme movement restrictions. Military checkpoints and curfews in Kashmir severely affect the free movement of people, medical equipment, and hospital personnel, and have resulted in significant shortages of healthcare personnel, ambulances, ventilators, and oxygen. Access to basic services and aid for the affected population remains a challenge. Access constraints are high across Pakistan. Increased violence along the Line of Control in Azad Jammu and Kashmir has restricted the movement of people, caused displacements, and disrupted access to basic services.?
Information Gaps and Needs
There is no INFORM Severity Index score for the Kashmir regional crisis because of information gaps.
Restrictions on access to the region by India and Pakistan make it difficult to verify the number of people affected, displacement numbers, locations of displaced people, priority humanitarian needs, and the severity of those needs.