• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 1,353,520,000 Total population [?]
  • 12,541,000 People exposed [?]



The disputed territory of India-administered Kashmir has led to uprisings and independence movements for decades. In August 2019, the Indian government issued a presidential decree revoking Articles 370 and 35A, which had given Jammu and Kashmir special autonomous status. This was the most far-reaching political move concerning the disputed region in nearly seven decades. Jammu and Kashmir was further downgraded from a state to a union territory, officially placing it entirely under the jurisdiction of the central government. An internet shutdown was also implemented, with internet finally being restored in February 2021 after 550 days. The political move increased disillusionment from the central government, resulting in a steady rise in militancy, recruitment among young Kashmiris, and targeting of politicians from the central government. Overall, the humanitarian situation in the region deteriorated in 2020.?

In June 2020, conflict between Indian and Chinese forces in the Ladakh region (in the Kashmir wider region) was recorded for the first time in 45 years. It resulted in the deaths of at least 20 Indian soldiers and one Chinese soldier, and remains unresolved. Poor demarcation along the Line of Actual Control contributes to increasing tensions and continued insecurity, as both countries try to expand their geo-political influence.?  

There is limited information regarding the humanitarian situation in Indian-administered Kashmir, in part because of the internet shutdown. Reports indicate that human rights violations by both militants and Indian security forces are common. Access to livelihoods and education is often disrupted because of the forced closure of businesses, schools, and markets. Healthcare is affected by communications disruptions and restrictions on movement.?

Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.

Key Concerns


Protection: Shelling along the Line of Control, clashes between police and militants, protest-related violence, and human rights violations by police forces and militants all pose significant protection concerns.?

Education: Disruptions to education are common in Kashmir, and recurrent protests result in the closure of schools by Indian forces. Even when schools are open, demands to boycott schools by Kashmiri militants and the threat of violence confine students to their homes. Nearly 1.5 million children in Kashmir experience regular disruptions or a complete lack of access to education, often for months at a time.?

Health: Restrictions on communications and movement directly impact health. Patients are unable to call ambulances, roadblocks pose a challenge for travel to hospitals, and the inability to make online or phone orders has caused medicine shortages. Reports suggest that nearly half the population experiences symptoms of mental illness, including anxiety, depression, and PTSD.?

Information Gaps and Needs


There is no INFORM Severity Index crisis score for the Kashmir conflict because of the lack of available data. 

Access to the region is limited for humanitarian organisations and international media. Within Jammu and Kashmir, restrictions on movement and communications disruptions are common. Information regarding the severity of humanitarian needs or the affected population is limited.