Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)0 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.0 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.0 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.30 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Jammu and Kashmir: 2019 lockdown
The disputed region of Kashmir has led to uprisings and independence movements for decades. In 2019 a series of political efforts to strip India-Administered Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir) of its autonomy escalated the conflict and deteriorated the humanitarian situation in the region.
In August 2019, the Indian government issued a presidential decree revoking Articles 370 and 35A, which gave Jammu and Kashmir special autonomous status, the most far-reaching political move on the disputed region in nearly seven decades. Jammu and Kashmir was further downgraded from State to Union Territory, officially placing it entirely under the jurisdiction of the central government.?
There is limited information regarding the humanitarian situation in Kashmir. Reports indicate human rights violations by both militants and Indian Security Forces are common. Access to livelihoods and education are often disrupted due to forced closure of businesses, schools, and markets. Healthcare is affected by communications disruptions and restrictions on movement.?
There are now recent updates or developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
For more information related to the COVID-19 outbreak in Kashmir, see content below.
Access to the region is limited for humanitarian organisations and international media. Within Jammu and Kashmir restrictions on movement and communication disruptions are common. A Jammu and Kashmir lockdown, including a communications blackout, was imposed in August 2019 due to large scale protests after the Government of India revoked the special status of Kashmir. Despite the lockdown being eased, both communication and movement restrictions remain ongoing. In addition to the logistical constraints that have resulted from the blackout, bureaucratic impediments also hinder humanitarian access, foreign NGOs are often denied governmental permission to access Kashmir.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Recent moves by Prime Minister Modi and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) have strained relations and incited new dissent from India’s Muslim population. In August 2019, a presidential decree revoked the autonomy status of Jammu and Kashmir, India’s only Muslim-majority state. A complete lockdown on communications and movement in the region followed. Simultaneously, the Assam National Register of Citizens (NRC) brought the citizenship status of 1.9 million people, mostly Muslims and minorities, into question, and efforts to establish a nationwide registry have been met with opposition. The situation was further aggravated by the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) in December, designed to provide a pathway to citizenship for those fleeing religious persecution from certain countries, but did not include Muslims.?
Anti-CAA demonstrations have fuelled violence between Hindu and Muslim communities. As of February 2020, nearly 80 people have died, including 53 in four consecutive days of violence in Delhi, which saw the torching of Muslim shops, homes, and mosques.?
In 2020, Supreme Court rulings eased the internet shutdown in Jammu and Kashmir and allowed protests to continue. However, legal challenges against the CAA and questions about the NRC remain unanswered. The Supreme Court, rather than rule on the amendment’s constitutionality, has given the government an opportunity to respond to challenges. Statements from BJP leaders have indicated that no decision has been made regarding a nationwide registry, though a push to convene a National Population Register in April 2020 has raised concerns that demographic data will be used to identify non-citizens.?
Any announcement of a nationwide citizenship registry or other moves perceived to alienate Muslims are likely to fuel intercommunal violence and embolden militancy in Kashmir, resulting in a strong response by the Indian government. This is particularly true if the Supreme Court is unwilling to address challenges to the CAA or Indian police do not ensure the safety of all Indian communities and protestors.
Political unrest will disproportionately affect Muslims in Kashmir, Assam, and Uttar Pradesh, all of which have a history of deep ethnic tensions. Reports indicate that police have been slow to respond to, or even active participants in, violence in Muslim communities. Conflict trends suggest that 100,000 to 250,000 people could be significantly affected, either by displacement, access restrictions, or increased protection risks.?
An increase in intercommunal violence and militancy will likely result in a strong response from Indian forces. Previous human rights violations by the Indian government included mass detention, excessive use of force to suppress dissent, and amplified military presence. Civilian attacks targeting Muslims will likely increase, leading to casualties, property damage, and loss of livelihoods if shops are destroyed.?
Government response to violence will likely include restrictions on communications and/or movement. Kashmir has limited capacity to cope with further restrictions or conflict following the August 2019 lockdown, which strained public services and hindered access to healthcare, education, and livelihoods for 8 million people. Access to healthcare will be strained should road blockades impede access to hospitals. Threats from militants attempting to usurp control, as well as government-imposed restrictions, will likely result in school closures and fear of attending classes.?
Displacement is likely. Conflict forced 170,000 people in India from their homes in 2018, the majority in Kashmir, and ethnic conflict in Assam has previously displaced 150,000 people in a single episode of violence. Conflict displacement in India is often temporary; however, recent intercommunal violence torched homes, creating longer-term displacement.?
Protection: Shelling along the Line of Control, clashes between police and militants, protest violence, and human rights violations by police forces and militants all pose a significant protection concern. Conflict-related deaths hit a record in 2019, with nearly 600 fatalities.?
Education: Disruptions to education are common in Kashmir. Protests result in the closure of schools by Indian forces. Even if schools are open, demands to boycott schools by Kashmiri militants and the threat of violence confines students to their homes. Nearly 1.5 million children in Kashmir see regular disruptions or complete lack of access to education, often for months at a time.?
Health: Restrictions on communications and movement directly impact health. Patients are unable to call ambulances, roadblocks pose a challenge for travel to hospitals, and inability to make online or phone orders has caused medicine shortages. Reports suggest nearly half the population experiences symptoms of mental illness, including anxiety, depression, and PTSD.?
The internet slowdown in Jammu and Kashmir is affecting public health officials’ ability to adequately prepare for or treat cases of COVID-19 in the region. After more than six months without internet services, the Government of India restored Kashmir’s internet in early March, but only at 2G speeds. Doctors and public health authorities have reported disruptions in access to information regarding COVID-19 due to the slow internet connection. Downloading health documents, including research on the virus, recommendations for prevention and treatment, and watching international news broadcasts is not possible with 2G.
Access to education is also directly affected. Schools in Kashmir reopened in February following seven months of closure. However, the closure of schools in India due to the COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in requirements for distance learning. Many elements of distance learning, such as streaming of lessons online or downloading curriculum documents are restricted by the internet slowdown.?
ACAPS' team is monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. For more information related to the outbreak, see the ACAPS COVID-19 Project.
Information Gaps and Needs
There is no crisis severity score for the Kashmir conflict due to the lack of available data.
Access to the region is limited for humanitarian organisations and international media. Within Jammu and Kashmir restrictions on movement and communication disruptions are common. Information regarding severity of humanitarian needs or population affected is limited.